abnormal psych 5,6,7

In the type of specific phobia called “blood-injury-injection,” there is an inherited vasovagal response and a tendency to faint due to:

a. an increase in blood pressure.
b. a decrease in body temperature.
c. a decrease in blood pressure.
d. an increase in body temperature.

c. a decrease in blood pressure.
Unlike most of the anxiety disorders in which female sufferers predominate, the sex ratio is almost equal in __________.

a. specific phobias
b. social phobia
c. panic disorder
d. agoraphobia

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b. social phobia
Although the “alarm reactions” experienced in both PTSD and panic disorder are very similar and result in conditioned responses, in panic disorder the alarm is _______.
a. weaker
b. stronger
c. false
d. real
c. false
Hideki was attending his fifth baseball game at Condor Stadium, where he had previously had a panic attack. He did not know if he would have a panic attack today, but shortly after entering the stadium, he did. This type of panic attack is ____________.

a. cued
b. uncued
c. situationally bound
d. environmentally predisposed

a. cued
According to research studies reported in the textbook, people with OCD who hold fundamentalist religious beliefs often present

a. attitudes of inflated responsibility.
b. a reduced sense of responsibility for their actions.
c. non-equivalence of obsessive thoughts and compulsive actions.
d. both checking and hoarding rituals.

A friend stated that when she went to a clinic, she had to spend several 30- to 60-second sessions shaking her head from side to side, spinning in a chair, tensing all her muscles, hyperventilating, or breathing through a narrow straw. She is surprised that you correctly guessed that she is receiving treatment for

a. social phobia.
b. panic disorder.
c. specific phobia.
d. posttraumatic stress disorder.

b. panic disorder.
A child who is afraid of dogs because her father was afraid of dogs is said to have a ________ vulnerability.

a. general psychological
b. specific biological
c. general biological
d. specific psychological

d. specific psychological
Which physiological measure consistently distinguishes individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) from non-anxious normal subjects?

a. Increased heart rate
b. Heightened autonomic arousal
c. Increased muscle tension
d. Decreased EEG beta activity

c. Increased muscle tension
People with GAD
a. have a media age of onset based on interviews was 25.
b. have episodes that come and go.
c. have a 58% chance of recovery after having the disorder for 12 years .
d. are three times as likely to develop agoraphobia as those without GAD.
c. have a 58% chance of recovery after having the disorder for 12 years .
Tony has thoughts about hating his younger brother and wishing he would die. He becomes very anxious about these thoughts because he has developed the idea that if anything really happened to his brother, it would be his fault. For no explainable reason, Tony starts mentally counting by odd numbers each time he walks past his brother’s room and discovers that this activity makes him less anxious. Tony’s behavior can be described as

a. a phobia of going into his brother’s room because he is afraid his hatred will actually hurt him.
b. a compulsive ritual designed to make him like his brother more.
c. an attempt to be better in math than his brother to gain parental acceptance.
d. a mental compulsion developed to neutralize his bad thoughts.

d. a mental compulsion developed to neutralize his bad thoughts.
Which of the following brain areas is NOT closely associated with anxiety?

a. Hippocampus
b. Amygdala
c. Hypothalamus
d. Prefrontal cortex

c. Hypothalamus
According to your textbook, there are at least three ways of developing a phobia. Which is NOT one of these ways?

a. Observing someone else experience severe fear
b. Having a nightmare about a feared situation
c. In certain conditions, being told about danger
d. Experiencing a panic attack in a specific situation

b. Having a nightmare about a feared situation
Actions, or sometimes thoughts, that an individual with OCD uses to reduce anxiety are called ______.

a. fixations
b. rituals
c. operants
d. habits

b. rituals
Which of the following is an example of the treatment technique for OCD called exposure and ritual prevention (ERP)?

a.Carrie has an obsessive fear of contamination that has led to compulsive hand-washing rituals. Her therapist is treating her by making her touch dirty laundry but not allowing her to wash for increasingly longer periods of time afterward.

b.Kerry has an obsessive fear of contamination that has led to compulsive hand-washing rituals. Her therapist is treating her by forcing her to wash her hands repeatedly, even when she doesn’t feel anxious.

c.Kelly has religious obsessions. She feels that if she doesn’t read biblical passages every hour of the day, she will do something evil. Her therapist is treating her by having her attend religious services more frequently so that good thoughts will replace the bad ones.

d.Callie has a hoarding compulsion. She becomes anxious whenever she has to throw something away; she even keeps stuff that she doesn’t need and will never use. Her therapist has arranged for all Callie’s junk to be dumped when she is away from home.

a.Carrie has an obsessive fear of contamination that has led to compulsive hand-washing rituals. Her therapist is treating her by making her touch dirty laundry but not allowing her to wash for increasingly longer periods of time afterward.
Richard, whose case is described in the textbook, was obsessed with the idea that if he did not eat in a certain ritualistic way, he would become possessed. This is an aspect of OCD that is termed ________.

a. symmetrical
b. magical
c. logical
d. demonic

b. magical
Which of the following people living in the United States is most likely to develop GAD?

a. Monica, a 50-year-old woman
b. Sam, a 50-year-old male
c. Billy, an 8-year-old boy
d. Tanya, a 15-year-old girl

a. Monica, a 50-year-old woman
According to several cross-cultural research studies reported in the textbook, the prevalence of OCD is

a. very similar across cultures.
b. lower in European countries.
c. higher in Africa nations.
d. virtually nonexistent in some cultures.

a. very similar across cultures.
For generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the pharmacological treatment of choice has been the category of drugs known as ___________.

a. tricyclics
b. MAO inhibitors
c. SSRIs
d. benzodiazepines

d. benzodiazepines
What happens when people with OCD attempt to neutralize or suppress disturbing, intrusive thoughts?

a. This strategy has no effect on the obsessive thoughts.
b. Other kinds of obsessive thinking start to occur.
c. The obsessive thoughts disappear.
d. The frequency of the obsessive thoughts increases

d. The frequency of the obsessive thoughts increases
The compulsions that an individual with OCD uses to suppress disastrous consequences or ward off intrusive thoughts can be either

a. biological or psychological.
b. positive or negative.
c. behavioral or mental.
d. autonomic or somatic.

c. behavioral or mental.
The setting for posttraumatic stress disorder to occur follows an experience accompanied by a triad of feelings, including all of the following EXCEPT _______.

a. horror
b. paranoia
c. helplessness
d. fear

b. paranoia
Studies suggest that parents can protect their child from anxiety if they

a. never let them experience adversity.
b. cope for the child as much as possible.
c. teach independence by ignoring the child’s needs.
d. let children explore the world and deal with the unexpected.

d. let children explore the world and deal with the unexpected.
In Japan, the anxiety syndrome termed taijin kyofusho involves a fear of

a. performing onstage.
b. embarrassing oneself.
c. personally offending others.
d. speaking to females.

c. personally offending others.
Nocturnal panic attacks generally occur when an individual is ____________.

a. in REM sleep
b. deeply asleep
c. having a nightmare
d. dreaming

b. deeply asleep
Which of the following is the most prevalent psychological disorder in the general population?

a. Agoraphobia
b. Specific phobia
c. Panic disorder
d. Social phobia

b. Specific phobia
Which of the following is an accurate statement about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?

a. Acute stress disorder was included as a DSM-IV diagnosis so early severe reactions to trauma could receive health insurance coverage for immediate treatment.

b. Most persons diagnosed with acute stress disorder do not eventually develop PTSD.

c. PTSD occurs in all individuals who experience a traumatic event.

d. Acute stress disorder is diagnosed instead of PTSD if a person’s symptoms begin 6 months or more after the traumatic event.

a. Acute stress disorder was included as a DSM-IV diagnosis so early severe reactions to trauma could receive health insurance coverage for immediate treatment.
Which of the following procedures is NOT part of Barlow’s panic control treatment (PCT)?

a. Cognitive therapy to modify conscious or unconscious perceptions about the “dangerousness” of feared situations
b. Creation of mini panic attacks in the therapist’s office
c. Reducing agoraphobic avoidance by exposure to feared situations
d. Exercises to elevate the heart rate or spinning to make the patient dizzy

c. Reducing agoraphobic avoidance by exposure to feared situations
Stressful life events – such as marriage, divorce, familial death, or academic pressures – trigger our vulnerabilities to anxiety. These are examples of a ______________ contribution.

a. psychological
b. social
c. cultural
d. biological

b. social
In the general population, as many as ____ of people suffer from social anxiety disorder at some point in their lives.

a. 12.1%
b. 31.8%
c. 51%
d. 1.7%

a. 12.1%
Research suggests that we inherit a tendency to be tense, which is ____________.

a. related to depression
b. caused by multiple genes
c. caused by a single gene
d. related to schizophrenia

b. caused by multiple genes
The behavioral process in which OCD patients are not permitted to carry out their compulsions while in the presence of the anxiety producing stimulus or situation is called

a. exposure and ritual prevention.
b. anxiety reduction therapy.
c. behavioral inhibition conditioning.
d. thought-stopping technique

a. exposure and ritual prevention.
The phenomenon known as “isolated sleep paralysis” is most likely to occur in _________ who suffer from panic disorder.

a. Latinos
b. Asians
c. Caucasians
d. African Americans

d. African Americans
Veterans returning home to the United States after the end of the war in Vietnam experienced a high rate of posttraumatic stress disorder due in part to

a. separation from family.
b. high rates of drug addiction.
c. absence of social support.
d. youth and inexperience.

c. absence of social support.
A psychological disorder in children characterized by unrealistic and persistent worry that something will happen to their parents, which may result in refusal to leave home is called

a. separation anxiety disorder.
b. school phobia.
c. globus hystericus.
d. situational phobia.

a. separation anxiety disorder.
Evidence now suggests that agoraphobic avoidance behavior is one component of

a. exaggerated obsessive-compulsive disorder.
b. mild generalized anxiety disorder.
c. severe, unexpected panic attacks.
d. major phobias

c. severe, unexpected panic attacks.
Which of the following is an accurate statement about anxiety?

a. Panic disorder does not “run in families.”
b. A single gene makes us vulnerable to anxiety.
c. Stress is a direct cause of panic disorder.
d. An inherited tendency can make us tense or uptight.

d. An inherited tendency can make us tense or uptight.
Which of the following is an accurate statement about factors affecting treatment for PTSD?

a. Re-exposure to the trauma should be accomplished quickly to assure the best therapeutic response.

b. Victims of PTSD often repress the emotional part of their memories of the traumatic event.

c. Psychoanalytic therapists help patients to relive emotional trauma through a process called free association.

d. Medications effective for other anxiety disorders are ineffective with PTSD.

b. Victims of PTSD often repress the emotional part of their memories of the traumatic event.
Anxiety is thought to be a____________ state, while fear is more_______.

a. short-term; long-term
b. real; irrational
c. immediate; future-oriented
d. future-oriented; immediate

d. future-oriented; immediate
An observation has been made between children presenting with OCD and tics after a bout of strep throat. The resulting syndrome was called

a. Streptococcal Caused Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (SCOCD).
b. Pediatric Autoimmune Disorder associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS).
c. Strep Throat Acquired Compulsive Disorder (STACD).
d. Tic Activated by Strep Throat Exemplar (TASTE).

b. Pediatric Autoimmune Disorder associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS).
Research studies have shown that combining exposure and ritual prevention (ERP) with medication when treating patients with OCD

a. is better than drug treatment alone.
b. is better than ERP alone.
c. does not produce any additional therapeutic advantage.
d. causes patients to discontinue treatment.

c. does not produce any additional therapeutic advantage.
Fear activates a

a. decrease in inhibitory mechanisms in the somatic nervous system so we can flee.
b. physiological but not psychological response.
c. surge of energy in the autonomic nervous system so we can flee.
d. psychological but not physiological response.

c. surge of energy in the autonomic nervous system so we can flee.
Physiologically, PTSD appears to be related to damage to

a. the amygdala, which disrupts sleep.
b. the hippocampus, which disrupts sleep.
c. the amygdala, which disrupts learning and memory.
d. the hippocampus, which disrupts learning and memory.

d. the hippocampus, which disrupts learning and memory
Overall it can be concluded that the combination of medical and psychological interventions for anxiety work

a. better than the individual treatments alone.
b. worse in combination.
c. only as well as the individual medical treatments.
d. only as well as the individual psychological treatments.

d. only as well as the individual psychological treatments.
Research suggests that generalized anxiety disorder is five-times more likely to develop in adults if they

a. smoked after age 20.
b. never smoked.
c. smoked as a teen.
d. chewed tobacco as a teen.

c. smoked as a teen.
Which of the following terms is most associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?

a. Panic
b. Emotion
c. Fear
d. Worry

d. Worry
According to Jeffrey Gray, a British neuropsychologist, the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) is activated by danger signals ___________, resulting in the experience of anxiety.

a. ascending from the brain stem
b. within the amygdala only
c. descending from the cortex
d. arising from the brain stem or descending from the cortex

d. arising from the brain stem or descending from the cortex
What is one factor that distinguishes between traditional exposure-based treatments for panic disorder and the more recent panic control treatment (PCT) developed at one of Barlow’s clinics?

a. Exposure to the interceptive sensations associated with panic attacks
b. Referral to a psychiatrist for medication monitoring
c. Traditional exposure-based treatments result in a higher rate of cures
d. As part of PCT, the therapist accompanies the patient on “reality testing” activities

a. Exposure to the interceptive sensations associated with panic attacks
At the time of assessment of an anxiety disorder, _________ of patients should have at least one other anxiety or depressive disorder.

a. 15%
b. 55%
c. 25%
d. 75%

b. 55%
Normal, ordinary people who have occasional intrusive thoughts with bizarre, sexual, or aggressive content would not be considered to have OCD unless they find the thoughts unacceptable or even dangerous and also

a. suffer from either post traumatic stress disorder or social phobia.
b. use alcohol or other drugs to reduce anxiety.
c. become horrified by such thoughts and consider them signs of some alien, intrusive, evil force.
d. develop insomnia and nightmares as well as dissociation symptoms and, on occasion, psychosis.

c. become horrified by such thoughts and consider them signs of some alien, intrusive, evil force.
In studies conducted by Elizabeth Loftus and her colleagues (Loftus, 2003; Loftus, Coan, and Pickrell, 1996), individuals were told about false events that had supposedly occurred when they were children. The results of this study indicated that

a. people cannot be convinced of events that did not happen.
b. people can become quite convinced of events that never happened.
c. people can become convinced of events that did not happen only during hypnosis or other dissociative states.
d. only individuals with diagnosable disorders can be convinced of events that never happened.

b. people can become quite convinced of events that never happened.
Dissociative identity disorder is most commonly found in ______________.

a. the elderly
b. children
c. females
d. males

c. females
The existence of a cross-gendered alter in dissociative identity disorder is _________.

a. common
b. almost never seen in this disorder
c. rare
d. present in every patient

a. common
One distinction that may help determine those with DID from individuals who are malingering (faking their symptoms) is that malingerers are

a. usually eager to demonstrate their symptoms.
b. usually hiding the existence of a major life crisis.
c. less likely to seek treatment.
d. more likely to have many alters.

a. usually eager to demonstrate their symptoms.
With regard to evidence for the scientific validity of dissociative identity disorder (DID), the most accurate statement is

a. most DID patients are faking.
b. objective tests can always determine which patients are faking dissociative identity disorder.
c. research suggests that faking dissociative experiences is possible.
d. it is virtually impossible to fake the types of changes that occur in dissociative identity disorder.

c. research suggests that faking dissociative experiences is possible.
Which of the following would be typical for a patient suffering from a conversion disorder?

a. Feeling a lump in the throat that interferes with swallowing, eating, or talking.
b. Great concern with the loss of function and belief that it is a symptom of a potentially fatal disease
c. Ability to identify everything in the visual field even though the patient reports that she is blind
d. Ability to see some bright objects when calm but suffering complete loss of sight during a stressful period or emergency

a. Feeling a lump in the throat that interferes with swallowing, eating, or talking.
Without treatment, it is expected that DID will last ___________.

a. 10 years
b. a lifetime
c. 20 years
d. several months

b. a lifetime
Individuals with dissociative identity disorder generally

a. have only one other distinct personality.
b. suffer a loss of their own identity that lasts several years.
c. have several distinct personalities.
d. maintain complete awareness of all of their personalities.

c. have several distinct personalities.
A switch

a. usually occurs instantaneously.
b. is the transition from one personality to another.
c. may exhibit physical transformations.
d. all of these

d. all of these
Studies suggest that patients with somatic symptom disorder or illness anxiety disorder are characterized by a tendency to

a. have low sensitivity to perceived illness.
b. minimize physical symptoms.
c. avoid bad news cues.
d. interpret ambiguous stimuli as threatening

d. interpret ambiguous stimuli as threatening
Research suggests that somatic symptom disorder often occurs in families with a strong tendency toward __________.

a. obsessive-compulsive disorder
b. schizophrenia
c. depression
d. antisocial personality disorder

d. antisocial personality disorder
In terms of antidepressant medication treatments for somatic symptom disorder, the most accurate statement based on the research so far is

a. antidepressants are effective but not significantly different from a placebo condition.

b. antidepressants are not effective.

c.placebo-controlled studies have been performed and the results suggest that antidepressants work for some hypochondriacs but not for most.

d. some reports suggest that antidepressants may be effective, but placebo-controlled studies have not been performed

a. antidepressants are effective but not significantly different from a placebo condition.
Freud called the reduction in anxiety by converting unconscious conflicts into physical symptoms

a. primary narcissism.
b. secondary narcissism.
c. secondary gain.
d. primary gain.

d. primary gain.
The part of the treatment plan for DID that is similar to the treatment plan for posttraumatic stress disorder is

a. integration of personality fragments.
b. hypnotic regression to early life experiences.
c. reliving the trauma (catharsis).
d. use of antipsychotic medications.

c. reliving the trauma (catharsis).
In dissociative fugue, the term fugue relates to ________________.

a. hallucination
b. confusion
c. loss of consciousness
d. flight or travel

d. flight or travel
Although both panic disorder patients and persons with somatic symptom disorder tend to misinterpret bodily sensations, patients with panic disorder

a. are having imagined physical sensations, while those with somatic symptom disorder are experiencing real physical sensations.

b.tend to ignore the symptoms of their first attacks, while those with somatic symptom disorder tend to seek immediate medical treatment following the first indication of pain.

c. tend to fear immediate catastrophe, while those with somatic symptom disorder tend to fear long-term illness.

d. are having real physical sensations, while the sensations of those with somatic symptom disorder are “all in their heads.”

c. tend to fear immediate catastrophe, while those with somatic symptom disorder tend to fear long-term illness.
While driving alone in her car, Sarah suddenly looks around and, for a moment, she can’t remember where she is, how she arrived at this point on the road, or even why she is driving her car. Sarah is experiencing _______________.

a. depersonalization
b. the early stages of what will eventually become a severe psychotic disorder
c. symptoms of a mood disorder
d. derealization

a. depersonalization
The common feature in almost every case of DID is

a. unrelenting substance abuse.
b. a history of body dysmorphic disorder.
c. a history of severe child abuse.
d. hallucinations and delusions.

c. a history of severe child abuse.
The process of changing from one personality to another generally occurs ________ in most patients with dissociative identity disorder.

a. rarely
b. quickly
c. slowly
d. only after many warning signs that a change is about to occur

b. quickly
During a dissociative fugue state, it is not uncommon for individuals to

a. take on a new identity.
b. contact friends and family.
c. see the world as a strange and foreign place.
d. commit suicide.

a. take on a new identity.
Which of the following statements is TRUEabout DID?

a. DID is absolutely impossible to fake.
b. DID is made up of false memories.
c. DID is easy to fake.
d. Dissociative symptoms may be the result of sleep deprivation

d. Dissociative symptoms may be the result of sleep deprivation
A person who fakes symptoms for a goal is called a _________, while a person who fakes a disease for no clear goal has a ________disorder:

a. hypochondriac; factitious
b. malingerer; factitious
c. conversion disorder patient; malingering
d. fictitious disorder patient; conversion

b. malingerer; factitious
The average number of alter personalities observed in individuals with dissociative identity disorder is ______________.

a. 100
b. 2
c. 15
d. 1

c. 15
In treating conversion disorder, which of the following statements is true?

a. Like somatic symptom disorder, clients do not respond well to any treatment.
b. Clients responded well to hypnosis.
c. Clients responded well to cognitive-behavioral therapy.
d. Clients responded well when hypnosis and cognitive-behavioral therapy were combined.

c. Clients responded well to cognitive-behavioral therapy.
Clients with illness anxiety disorder are likely to

a. avoid unnecessary medical procedures.
b. avoid doctors.
c. ignore the long-term process of illness.
d. soon reject assurances that they are healthy.

d. soon reject assurances that they are healthy.
A comparison of dissociative reactions in “normals” and in DID patients indicates that the experience of dissociation is ________________ in normal versus DID patients.

a. identical
b. so different as to have no similarities at all
c. very different
d. very similar

c. very different
Hippocrates and the Egyptians before him thought that hysterical disorders were the result of a _________.

a. dysfunctional ovary
b. tense vagina
c. wandering uterus
d. none of these

c. wandering uterus
With regard to the treatment of illness anxiety disorder and somatic symptom disorder, some research supports the use of __________.

a. humanistic therapy
b. cognitive-behavioral treatment and stress reduction
c. conditioning
d. psychoanalysis

b. cognitive-behavioral treatment and stress reduction
An alter is

a. a separate identity experienced by someone with dissociative identity disorder.
b. a new identity created by someone with dissociative fugue.
c. a new identity created by someone with generalized amnesia.
d. a physical symptom with no physical cause experienced by someone with somatic symptom disorder.

a. a separate identity experienced by someone with dissociative identity disorder.
Vanna, who is 40, apparently believes that she is a 20-year-old woman. Suddenly, she starts to speak and behave very differently, and says she no longer thinks of herself as “Vanna.” Instead, she claims to be Elise, a 10-year-old child. It is likely that Vanna has just experienced a _____.

a. switch
b. schizophrenic moment
c. conversion reaction
d. dissociative trance disorder

a. switch
Studies of faking, amnesia, and hypnosis such as the one conducted by Spanos (1996) suggest that symptoms of dissociative identity disorder

a. can be developed through therapist suggestion and reinforcement.
b. are almost never the result of therapist intervention.
c. cannot be developed through therapist suggestion and reinforcement.
d. are almost always the result of hypnotically inserted (false) memories.

a. can be developed through therapist suggestion and reinforcement.
Goodman et al. (2003) interviewed 175 individuals with documented child abuse histories and found that ___ of the subjects remembered and reported the abuse.

a. 25%
b. 53%
c. 100%
d. 81%

d. 81%
With regard to dissociative identity disorder, the term “alter” refers to ______________ within the individual.

a. the “host” personality
b. a dangerous personality
c. a different personality
d. the most recent personality to emerge

c. a different personality
A patient with somatic symptom disorder tends to generate higher healthcare costs than an average patient due to.

a. an extensive medical and physical workup with every visit to a new physician.
b. the person’s tendency to visit numerous medical specialists.
c. both a and b
d. neither a or b

c. both a and b
A man who finds himself living in a small town in Alaska with no recall of how he got there may have ___________.

a. depersonalization-derealization disorder
b. conversion
c. dissociative identity disorder
d. dissociative amnesia with dissociative fugue

d. dissociative amnesia with dissociative fugue
According to psychological theory, neuroses stem from

a. underlying unconscious conflicts.
b. the clash of conscious and unconscious therapy.
c. dream process.
d. identity concepts

a. underlying unconscious conflicts.
According to the autohypnotic model, people who are suggestible may be

a. able to create false memories to ease their trauma.
b. able to use dissociation as a defense against extreme trauma.
c. able to remember the trauma that created the false memories.
d. unable to switch at will.

b. able to use dissociation as a defense against extreme trauma.
Dissociative trance disorder is diagnosed

a. only when the trance causes harm to the individual or others.
b. whenever an individual repeatedly enters a trance state.
c. only when the trance is undesirable and considered pathological in the individual’s culture.
d. only when the trance is unpredictable in terms of when it appears (i.e., individual goes into a trance without prior religious ritual).

c. only when the trance is undesirable and considered pathological in the individual’s culture.
Comparisons of optical functioning in the various personalities of dissociative identity disorder patients show changes that would be

a. easy to fake.
b. difficult to fake.
c. absolutely impossible to fake.
d. consistent with an individual who was trying to fake.

b. difficult to fake.
In dissociative identity disorder, the “host” personality is usually the one that

a. is sexually provocative.
b. earns income for the individual.
c. asks for treatment and becomes the patient.
d. is the most aggressive of the personalities.

c. asks for treatment and becomes the patient.
The hypothesized connections between somatic symptom disorder and antisocial personality disorder
are

a. sibling rivalry and attention deficits.
b. poor modeling by parents and other authority figures.
c. genetic defects and poor nutrition.
d. pleasure seeking and impulsivity

d. pleasure seeking and impulsivity
Sue has DID. It is extremely likely that she also has

a. at least one other psychological disorder.
b. a problem with her weight.
c. a history of problems with the law.
d. no desire to get better.

a. at least one other psychological disorder.
Losing your own sense of reality is called ______________.

a. a fugue state
b. a dissociative disorder
c. depersonalization
d. a trance state

c. depersonalization
Depersonalization is defined as

a. altered perception including loss of the sense of one’s own reality.
b. the feeling that one is no longer a person.
c. altered perception involving loss of the sense of reality of the external world.
d. vivid hallucinations.

a. altered perception including loss of the sense of one’s own reality.
Disorders such as koro and dhat that are similar to somatic symptom disorders demonstrate the

a. influence of culture on psychopathology.
b. physical basis of many hypochondriacs’ complaints.
c. influence of genetics on psychopathology.
d. difficulty of accurately diagnosing hypochondriasis.

a. influence of culture on psychopathology.
The diagnosis of depersonalization-derealization disorder is

a. rare but applied to anyone who experiences depersonalization.
b. fairly common since many people experience depersonalization.
c. fairly common and applied to anyone who is frightened by an experience of depersonalization.
d. rare and only applied when the experience of depersonalization interferes with normal functioning

d. rare and only applied when the experience of depersonalization interferes with normal functioning
Catharsis is

a. the process of placing a tube into the bladder to release urine.
b. a conscious behavioral process.
c. a purging of emotionally traumatic events.
d. none of these

c. a purging of emotionally traumatic events.
One method that is used to reduce the financial burden associated with somatic symptom disorder is ____________.

a. assignment of a gatekeeper physician
b. encouraging patients to speak to family and friends about their symptoms
c. exposure therapy
d. psychoanalysis

a. assignment of a gatekeeper physician
In rare tragic cases, a mother suffering from major depression with peripartum onset sometimes

a. murders other people’s children.
b. commits suicide.
c. injures the child’s father.
d. kills her child.

d. kills her child.
Impulsive suicidal behavior is often a symptom of _____________ personality disorder.

a. obsessive-compulsive
b. paranoid
c. borderline
d. schizoid

c. borderline
Most individuals who experience a single episode of major depressive disorder will

a. later have a manic episode.
b. most likely have just one more episode.
c. probably have several episodes throughout their lives.
d. never have another episode.

c. probably have several episodes throughout their lives.
Which of the following statements applies to the condition known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD)?

a. SAD can be treated with phototherapy, i.e., 2 hours of exposure to bright light just before going to sleep.
b. Depression in vulnerable people might be triggered by decreased production of the hormone called melatonin.
c. People with SAD have symptoms of decreased sleep and decreased appetite.
d. Women with SAD reported more autonomous negative thoughts throughout the year than women without SAD.

d. Women with SAD reported more autonomous negative thoughts throughout the year than women without SAD.
With regard to the prevalence of mood disorders, which of the following has been found consistently?

a. Men have twice as many mood disorders as women.
b. Bipolar disorders occur equally across the sexes.
c. Dysthymia occurs equally across the sexes.
d. Females experience major depressive disorders less frequently than males.

b. Bipolar disorders occur equally across the sexes.
All of the following statements are true about ECT EXCEPT

a. for severely depressed patients with psychotic features, approximately 25% of those not responding to medication will benefit.
b. electric shock is administered directly to the brain for less than a second.
c. patient response to antidepressant medication is poor.
d. ECT treatments are administered every other day for a total of 6 to 10 treatments.

a. for severely depressed patients with psychotic features, approximately 25% of those not responding to medication will benefit.
Jack has experienced recurrent episodes of major depressive episodes. In the intervals between the episodes, he does not seem to return to “normal.” In fact, during those periods, he has been diagnosed as suffering from persistent depressive disorder. Jack’s condition is referred to as _______________.

a. bipolar disorder
b. atypical depression
c. dysfunctional dysthymia
d. double depression

d. double depression
Martin Seligman’s theory that people become anxious and depressed because they believe that they have no control over the stress in their lives is called

a. cognitive-behavioral theory.
b. humanistic/existential theory.
c. the learned helplessness theory.
d. the control theory of depression

c. the learned helplessness theory.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?

a. Overwhelming evidence suggests mood disorders are familial and reflect an underlying genetic vulnerability.
b. Studies are now beginning to identify a small group of genes that may contribute to genetic vulnerability to some types of depression.
c. The genetic contribution to depression falls in the range of approximately 40% for females and 20% for males.
d. All of the above

d. All of the above
In Aaron Beck’s depressive cognitive triad, individuals think negatively about all of the following EXCEPT ________.

a. themselves
b. their future
c. their past
d. their immediate world

c. their past
Approximately ______ experience major depressive disorder over a lifetime and approximately _____ in the last year

a. 16%; 6%
b. 11%; 4%
c. 25%; 10%
d. 21%; 8%

a. 16%; 6%
In studies of bipolar patients who experience rapid cycling, it has been found that from 60% to 90% are _________.

a. adolescents
b. male
c. elderly
d. female

d. female
Prevention of mood disorders in children and adolescents include all of the following except

a. indicated interventions.
b. universal programs.
c. selected interventions.
d. milieu interventions.

d. milieu interventions.
Recent research suggests that

a. the suppression of neurogenesis in the hippocampus is due to the connection between high stress hormones and depression.
b. low hippocampal volume may precede and contribute to the onset of depression
c. electroconvulsive therapy seems to produce neurogenesis in the hippocampus
d. All of the above

d. All of the above
All of the following are side effects of lithium therapy EXCEPT ____________.

a. lowered thyroid functioning
b. toxicity
c. lack of energy
d. weight loss

d. weight loss
In about _____________patients, cyclothymic mood swings develop into full-blown bipolar disorder.

a. 33% to 50%
b. 10% to 20%
c. 50% to 66%
d. 25% to 33%

a. 33% to 50%
With regard to the relationship between mood disorders and suicide, which of the following statements reflects the current thinking on this issue?

a. Suicide is often associated with psychological disorders, especially depression.
b. All people who attempt suicide have mood disorders.
c. A small percentage of adolescent suicides are an expression of severe depression.
d. Suicide is generally a response to some disappointment in people who are otherwise psychologically healthy.

a. Suicide is often associated with psychological disorders, especially depression.
Morning light is thought to help with seasonal affective disorder because it

a. produces phase advances of the melatonin rhythm.
b. increases the amount of melatonin released.
c. eliminates melatonin release.
d. reverses melatonin release.

a. produces phase advances of the melatonin rhythm.
When used in connection with mood disorders, “flight of ideas” means

a. anxiety about airplane travel.
b. limited imagination reflected in a slow way of speaking.
c. rapid speech expressing many exciting ideas at once.
d. repression of all creative ideas.

c. rapid speech expressing many exciting ideas at once.
How many patients with severe cases of depression where the episode lasts 5 years or longer can be expected to recover?

a. 38%
b. 22%
c. 56%
d. 4%

a. 38%
In comparing the length of untreated depressive episodes to untreated manic episodes, which of the following is an accurate statement?

a. Depressive episodes generally last longer.
b. Both types of episodes typically last about the same amount of time.
c. Manic episodes generally last longer.
d. This comparison cannot be made because depressive episodes are always treated.

a. Depressive episodes generally last longer.
According to recent research on the development of depression, dysfunctional attitudes (a negative outlook) and hopelessness attributes (explaining things negatively) constitute a _____________ vulnerability to depression.

a. sociological
b. behavioral
c. cognitive
d. biological

c. cognitive
The peripartum onset specifier is used to characterize a severe manic or depressive episode with psychotic features that occurs in a woman immediately before or after ____________.

a. menopause
b. childbirth
c. a physical assault
d. a hysterectomy

b. childbirth
All of the following statements about lithium therapy are true EXCEPT

a. people stop taking lithium to regain the euphoric feeling that mania produces.
b. for those patients who respond to lithium, approximately 70% will relapse.
c. for anyone with recurrent manic episodes, maintenance on lithium is recommended to prevent relapse.
d. once a person is symptom-free for 6 months, he/she may stop taking lithium.

d. once a person is symptom-free for 6 months, he/she may stop taking lithium.
Which of the following statements is accurate regarding the relationship between anxiety and depression?

a. Anxiety is often preceded by an episode of major depression.
b. Cognitive content (thinking) is more negative in anxious patients than in those with depression.
c. A core symptom of anxiety is the inability to experience pleasure.
d. Many depressed patients are or have been anxious and many anxious patients are or have been depressed.

d. Many depressed patients are or have been anxious and many anxious patients are or have been depressed.
Recent evidence indicates a higher level of ___________ in patients with bipolar disorder that was marked by a rapid cycling pattern compared to those with a non-rapid cycling pattern.

a. resistance to treatment
b. treatment response
c. medication side effects
d. suicide

d. suicide
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the sleep of depressed patients?

a. They show advanced slow wave sleep.
b. They enter REM sleep quickly.
c. They show delayed slow wave sleep.
d. They experience intense REM episodes.

a. They show advanced slow wave sleep.
If a friend of yours stops sleeping and suddenly claims that he is going to go to law school and medical school simultaneously so he can change the world, you might suspect he is __________.

a. manic
b. anxious
c. depressed
d. anhedonic

a. manic
Jane is diagnosed with bipolar II disorder. You can expect that she will experience

a. hypomanic episodes.
b. both manic and hypomanic episodes.
c. full manic episodes.
d. neither manic nor hypomanic episodes.

a. hypomanic episodes.
Research has found that low serotonin levels may be implicated in suicidal behavior because they affect all of the following EXCEPT _______.

a. agnosia
b. impulsivity
c. instability
d. overreactivity

a. agnosia
The antidepressant medication lithium is also referred to as a mood stabilizer because it

a. is less toxic than the SSRI medications.
b. increases the availability of both dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain.
c. increases thyroid functioning, which results in improved mood stabilization.
d. helps to prevent manic episodes.

d. helps to prevent manic episodes.
According to your textbook, researchers have been studying the life histories of American poets to determine if there is a relationship between creativity and _______.

a. anxiety
b. bipolar disorder
c. dissociation
d. schizophrenia

b. bipolar disorder
Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been a controversial issue for decades, it is an effective treatment for depression especially when

a. patients cannot afford antidepressant medication.
b. patient response to antidepressant medication is poor.
c. a manic-depressive patient is currently experiencing a manic episode.
d. symptoms of depression are mild.

b. patient response to antidepressant medication is poor.
Which of the following factors contribute to the integrative theory of depression?

a. Stressful life events
b. Stress hormones
c. Neurotransmitter systems
d. All of these

d. All of these
A woman who is extremely depressed a year or so after the loss of her spouse might be diagnosed with ___________.

a. dysthymia
b. normal bereavement
c. complicated grief
d. major depression

c. complicated grief
Although catatonic symptoms occur in major depressive disorders, they are more frequently associated with ______________.

a. phobias
b. dissociative identity disorder
c. schizophrenia
d. somatoform disorders

c. schizophrenia
A person who experiences a persistent depressed mood for at least 2 years but is not experiencing major depression may have

a. bipolar disorder.
b. double depression.
c. cyclothymic disorder.
d. persistent depressive disorder.

d. persistent depressive disorder.
Which of the following is NOT TRUE about a hypomanic manic episode?

a. It does contribute to the definition of several mood disorders.
b. It is not necessarily problematic.
c. It causes marked impairment in social or occupational functioning.
d. It need only last 4 days.

c. It causes marked impairment in social or occupational functioning.
The antidepressant medications known as imipramine (Tofranil) and amitriptyline (Elavil) are included in the class of drugs called

a. tricyclics.
b. MAO inhibitors.
c. tranquilizers.
d. SSRIs.

a. tricyclics.
During a dysphoric manic episode, the patient experiences mania and ___________.

a. anger
b. schizophrenia
c. anxiety and depression
d. confusion

c. anxiety and depression
The most usual pattern of a temporal specifier in major depressive disorder occurs in the late fall and ends with the beginning of spring. This type of depression is known as __________.

a. melancholic
b. recurrent
c. seasonal affective disorder
d. postpartum

c. seasonal affective disorder
Suicide associated with bipolar disorder almost always occurs during

a. a hypomanic phase.
b. a prodromal period.
c. depressive episode.
d. a manic phase.

c. depressive episode.
The melancholic specifiers for depressive disorders include all of the following EXCEPT

a. loss of libido (sex drive).
b. anhedonia.
c. weight loss.
d. sleeping late and hypersomnia.

d. sleeping late and hypersomnia.
Milton has been mildly depressed for many years. Just recently, however, his depression deepened, and he was severely depressed for about three months. His deep depression then lifted and he was once again mildly depressed. Milton

a. will require treatment for the rest of his life.
b. will quickly respond to treatment and will recover completely from his depression.
c. will be easier to treat now that the severe depression is resolved.
d. will require a longer and more intense course of treatment to maintain a normal mood state.

d. will require a longer and more intense course of treatment to maintain a normal mood state.
In research looking at the biological causes of mood disorders, studies have shown that if one of a set of twins has a mood disorder, the probability that the other twin will have a mood disorder is _________.

a. 81%
b. 29%
c. 66%
d. 42%

c. 66%
The best conclusion about the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) for the diagnosis of depression is that

a. it promises to be an effective diagnostic tool in the future.
b. it is accurate.
c. it is effective but cannot differentiate bipolar disorder from major depression.
d. it is not useful as a diagnostic tool.

d. it is not useful as a diagnostic tool.
Clinical studies have shown that the response rate for patients receiving at least some relief from depressive symptoms is approximately ________.

a. 100%
b. 25%
c. 75%
d. 50%

d. 50%
One symptom of depression is an increase in sleeping. What other symptoms related to sleep occur in depression?

a. Less intense REM activity
b. Stages of deepest sleep occurring earlier in the sleep cycle
c. A reduction of slow-wave (deep) sleep.
d. Slower onset of REM sleep

c. A reduction of slow-wave (deep) sleep.