AP Psychology Chapter 2: Research Methods Multiple Choice Part 2/2

Organized sets of concepts that explain phenomena are
A) Independent Variables
B) Dependent Variables
C) Hypotheses
D) Theories
E) Statistics
D
Students will be able to read a statement printed in the Comic Sans font faster than the same statement written in the Lucida Calligraphy font.
This statement is a(n)
A) Hypothesis
B) Theory
C) Replication
D) Operational Definition
E) Correlation
A
Students will be able to read a statement printed in the Comic Sans font faster than the same statement written in the Lucida Calligraphy font.
The dependent variable in an experiment based on the statement would be
A) The statement written in the Comic Sans font
B) The statement written in the Lucida Calligraphy font
C) The length of time it takes students to read the statements
D) The students who read the statements written in the Comic Sans font
E) The number of students who participate in the experiment
C
A quasi-experiment cannot be considered a controlled experiment because
A) Subjects cannot be randomly selected
B) Subjects cannot be randomly assigned
C) Experimenter bias is unavoidable
D) Demand characteristics are unavoidable
E) Too few subjects participate in the procedure
B
When subjects in the experimental group put a puzzle piece in the wrong place, the experimenter unconsciously winced. The experimenter did not wince when subjects in the control group put a piece in the wrong place.
The wincing of the experimenter must be eliminated because it is
A) Fraudulent
B) A demand characteristic
C) A placebo effect
D) A confabulation
E) A confounding variable
E
When subjects in the experimental group put a puzzle piece in the wrong place, the experimenter unconsciously winced. The experimenter did not wince when subjects in the control group put a piece in the wrong place.
One method to eliminate the wincing of the experimenter is by instituting
A) The experimenter expectancy effect
B) The single-blind procedure
C) The double-blind procedure
D) The placebo effect
E) Counterbalancing
C
Of the following, which research method is most effective for studying unusually complex or rare phenomena?
A) Controlled Experiment
B) Quasi-Experiment
C) Test
D) Survey
E) Case Study
E
Of the following, which research method would be most appropriate for investigating the relationship between political party membership and attitude toward the death penalty?
A) Controlled Experiment
B) Quasi-Experiment
C) Test
D) Survey
E) Case Study
D
Of the following, the strongest positive correlation would most likely be shown between
A) An adult’s weight and running speed
B) Close friendships and happiness
C) Sense of humor and years of education
D) Poverty and good health
E) Visual acuity and salary
B
John wants to study the effects of alcohol on the behavior of college students. For his study, he spends 5 hours ever night for 2 weeks at a bar near a college watching how the patrons act before and after drinking alcoholic beverages. The research method John is employing is a
A) Controlled Experiment
B) Quasi-Experiment
C) Test
D) Naturalistic Observation
E) Case Study
D
Of the following, which can establish a cause and effect relationship?
I. Controlled experiment
II. Quasi-experiment
III. Correlational research
A) I only
B) II only
C) I and II only
D) I and III only
E) I, II, III
A
Ms. Costas owns a business with nine other employees. Ms. Costas’s annual salary is $90,000. Her manager’s salary is $60,000. Of her other employees, three earn $25,000 each and five earn $15,000 each.
The range of this distribution is
A) $75,000
B) $50,000
C) $25,000
D) $20,000
E) $15,000
A
Ms. Costas owns a business with nine other employees. Ms. Costas’s annual salary is $90,000. Her manager’s salary is $60,000. Of her other employees, three earn $25,000 each and five earn $15,000 each.
For this distribution, the mean is
A) Lower than both the median and the mode
B) Lower than the median, but higher than the mode
C) Lower than the mode, but higher than the median
D) Higher than both the median and the mode
E) The same as the median
D
Ms. Costas owns a business with nine other employees. Ms. Costas’s annual salary is $90,000. Her manager’s salary is $60,000. Of her other employees, three earn $25,000 each and five earn $15,000 each.
The frequency polygon for this distribution resembles a
A) Normal Curve
B) Positively Skewed Line Graph
C) Negatively Skewed Line Graph
D) Bar Graph
E) Scatterplot
B
A case study is:
A) A primary tool for investigation into a client’s unconscious through
dream analysis and free association
B) A study done over an entire life span of one individual, giving the
psychologist detailed information of one’s psyche
C) A study that exposes the subject to some event and measures coping skills
D) An independent study used outside the natural environment of the subject
E) A comparative study of various people of different ages at the same
time
A
Which of the following research methods does not permit researchers to draw conclusions regarding cause-and-effect relationships?
A) Experimental Research
B) Surveys
C) Case Studies
D) Correlational Research
E) Naturalistic Observations
D
A random sample can best be defined as:
A) A sample in which each potential participant has an equal chance of being selected
B) A sample that is carefully chosen so the characteristics of participants correspond to the larger population
C) A selection of cases from a larger population
D) A selection of cases from the control group
E) A sample of a larger population from the experimental group
A
The Hawthorne effect is best defined as:
A) Expectations by the experimenter that can influence the results of an experiment
B) The change in the results of an experiment when it is “blind” versus
“double blind”
C) The idea that people will alter their behavior because of the
researchers’ attention and not because of actual treatment
D) Specific, testable predictions derived from a theory
E) The idea that subjects in an experiment will lie if the researcher tells them to
C
Dr. Bisell conducts an experiment to see whether hunger makes mice run faster through a maze. He randomly assigns 25 mice to a control group or an experimental group. Which cannot be a confounding variable?
A) Where the experiment takes place
B) How hungry the mice were before the experiment
C) How fast the mice are before the race
D) When the experiment takes place
E) The population from which he selected the mice
E
Marc, a psychology major, collected survey data about the number of hours that college students study for finals and their grades on those finals. His data indicates that students who spend more time studying for finals
tend to do better than other students. What can Marc now conclude?
A) Studying improves a student’s grade on a final exam.
B) A relationship exists between studying and exam grades.
C) A significant relationship exists between studying and grades.
D) Students who do not study for final exams will not do well on those
exams.
E) Students with higher IQs tend to study more than those with
lower IQs.
B
Jordan runs an experiment testing the effects of sugar consumption on
aggression levels in children. He randomly assigns 20 subjects either to a control group given sugar-free candy or to the experimental group that was given the same candy that did contain sugar. He then tests the subjects’
response to several different puzzles, each with increasing difficulty. Jordan hypothesizes that sugar levels do play a role in aggression in children. In order to know whether his hypothesis has been supported, Jordan will need to use:
A) Descriptive Statistics
B) Means-to-end Statistics
C) Experimental Research
D) Scatter Plots
E) Inferential Statistics
E
Which of the following coefficients of a correlation indicate the weakest
relationship between two variables?
A) 0.51
B) ?0.28
C) 0.08
D) ?1.00
E) 1.00
C
The observation in a classroom that the higher the room temperature, the
lower student performance would be an example of:
A) Negative Correlation
B) Zero Correlation
C) Positive Correlation
D) Independent Correlation
E) Dependent Correlation
A
In an experiment, Sydney is going to investigate how alcohol affects
aggression. The number of alcoholic drinks the subject has is called:
A) Controlled Variable
B) Independent Variable
C) Dependent Variable
D) Experimental Variable
E) Positive Variable
B
If a researcher is trying to establish a causal relationship between eating breakfast and work performance, the researcher should use which of the following methods of research?
A) Case Study
B) Correlational Research
C) Experimental Research
D) Survey
E) Statistics
C
Psychologists generally prefer the experimental method to other research methods because
A) Experiments are more likely to support psychologists’ hypotheses.
B) Experiments can show cause-effect relationships.
C) It is easier to obtain a random sample for an experiment.
D) Double-blind designs are unnecessary in an experiment.
E) Experiments are more likely to result in statistically significant findings.
B
Theoretically, random assignment should eliminate
A) Sampling error.
B) The need to use statistics.
C) Concerns over validity.
D) Many confounding variables.
E) The need for a representative sample.
D
Karthik and Sue are lab partners assigned to research who is friendlier, girls or boys. After conversing with their first 10 participants, they find that their friendliness ratings often differ. With which of the following should they be most concerned?
A) Reliability
B) Confounding Variables
D) Validity
C) Ethics
E) Assignment
A
Which of the following hypotheses would be most difficult to test experimentally?
A) People exposed to the color red will be more aggressive than those exposed to the color blue.
B) Exercise improves mood.
C) Exposure to violent television increases aggression.
D) Studying leads to better grades.
E) Divorce makes children more independent.
E
Professor Ma wants to design a project studying emotional response to date rape. He advertises for participants in the school newspaper, informs them about the nature of the study, gets their consent, conducts an interview, and debriefs them about the results when the experiment is over. If you were on the IRB, which ethical consideration would you most likely have the most concern about in Professor Ma’s study?
A) Coercion
B) Deception
C) Confounding Variables
D) Anonymity
E) Clear Scientific Purpose
D
Some psychologists consider Stanley Milgram’s obedience studies to be unethical because of which ethical consideration?
A) Improper Sampling Procedure
B) Risk of Long-Term Harm
C) Clear Scientific Purpose
D) Debriefing
E) Anonymity
B
One of the principal differences between the ethical guidelines for human and animal research is:
A) Human subjects can be deceived for experimental purposes and animals cannot.
B) Animal subjects can be placed at much greater physical risk than human subjects can.
C) Human subjects must be chosen much more carefully than animal subjects.
D) If humans might physically suffer because of the study, the suffering must be minimal, in contrast to animal studies where any amount of suffering is ethical if it helps to further a clear scientific purpose.
E) Environmental conditions for human studies must be monitored much more closely than they are in an animal study.
B
Tamar scored 145 on an IQ test with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. What is her z score?
A) ?3
B) ?1.5
C) +0.67
D) 1.5
E) +3
E
What is the median of the following distribution: 6, 2, 9, 4, 7, 3?
A) 4
B) 5
C) 5.5
D) 6
E) 6.5
B
Sandy scores a perfect 100 on a test that everyone else fails. If we were to graph this distribution, it would be
A) Symmetrical
B) Normal
C) Positively Skewed
D) Negatively Skewed
E) A Straight Line
C
Jose hypothesizes that a new drug he has just invented will enhance mice’s memories. He feeds the drug to the experimental group and gives the control group a placebo. He then times the mice as they learn to run through a maze. In order to know whether his hypothesis has been supported, Jose would need to use
A) Scatter Plots
B) Descriptive Statistics
C) Histograms
D) Inferential Statistics
E) Means-End Analysis
D
Which of the following is an example of random sampling?
I. Picking out of a hat to assign each of three classes to an experimental condition.
II. Having a computer generate a random list of 100 high school students.
III. Approaching any 50 students during sixth-period lunch.
A) I only
B) II only
C) III only
D) I and II
E) I, II, and III
B
Vincenzo conducts an experiment to see whether fear makes mice run through mazes faster. He first selected a sample of 60 mice and then divided them into a control group and an experimental group. Which cannot be a confounding variable?
A) How fast the mice are at the start
B) When the mice run the maze
C) The population from which he selected his subjects
D) How frightened the mice are before the experiment
E) Where the mice run the maze
C
Charlotte, a nursery school student, hypothesizes that boys have fights with the finger paints more than girls do. She tests her hypothesis by casually watching the finger-painting table for three days of nursery school. What method is she using?
A) Field Experiment
B) Informal Survey
C) Case Study
D) Naturalistic Observation
E) Ethnography
D
Jen collects survey data that indicates that students who spend more time preparing for the AP test tend to score better than other students. Jen can now conclude that
A) Studying improves exam grades.
B) A relationship exists between studying and exam grades.
C) A significant correlation exists between studying and exam grades.
D) Anyone who does not study will do poorly on the exam.
E) Better students tend to study more.
B
Which of the following is the best example of the use of a random sample?
A) You ask your fellow students in your high school to be participants in a memory study
B) You ask every student in your 4th period class to participate in a survey on drunk driving
C) You ask people in a religious group to participate in a study on moral values
D) You ask people shopping in an upscale store to complete a survey on shopping preferences
E) You place all of the names of members of your school in a giant box and select 100 of them to particate in a survey on school uniforms
E
To describe the behavior of chimpanzees in their native habitat, researchers are most likely to make use of which research method?
A) Experiment
B) Case Study
C) Correlation
D) Survey
E) Naturalistic Observation
E
If psychologists discovered that wealthy people have lower life satisfaction than poor people, what would this would indicate about the relationship between wealth and life satisfaction?
A) They are positively correlated
B) They are negatively correlated
C) They are both independent variables
D) They are both dependent variables
E) They are both causal factors
B
Dr. Young wants to see if drinking alcohol causes violent behavior. Dr. Young would be best advised to use which research method?
A) Case Study
B) Correlational Research
C) Experiment
D) Survey
E) Naturalistic Observation
C
The hindsight bias refers to people’s tendency to do which of the following?
A) Dismiss the value of replication
B) Overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions
C) Assume that correlation proves causation
D) Dismiss the possibility that the experimenter bias is a legitimate concern in research
E) Exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past event
E
To minimize the extent to which outcome differences between experimental and control conditions can be attributed to placebo effects, researchers make use of which safeguard?
A) Random Assignment
B) Random Sampling
C) Double-Blind Procedure
D) Operational Definitions
E) Replication
C
In an experiment designed to study the effectiveness of a new drug, research participants who receive a placebo are participating in which condition?
A) Control
B) Experimental
C) Confounding
D) Operational
E) Research
A
Which of the following is the main disadvantage of the case study?
A) Information obtained is very superficial and not detailed
B) Information is rarely scientifically valid
C) Such research tends to violate ethical guidelines
D) Results may not be applicable to other people or cases
E) It is difficult to conduct due to the large number of subjects used in such studies
D
To learn about the TV viewing habits of all the children attending Elm Elementary school, Professor Fries randomly selected and interviewed 50 of the school’s students. In this instance, all the children attending the school are considered to be the
A) Population
B) Sample
C) Independent Variable
D) Dependent Variable
E) Control Condition
A
An experiment is designed to discover if vitamin C increases memory. In this experiment, what is vitamin C?
A) Control Variable
B) Independent Variable
C) Dependent Variable
D) Operational Definition
E) Confounding Variable
B
A survey is conducted to assess racial prejudice among its responders. Often, responders will report less prejudice than what would be expected based on other types of research. This finding can be best explained by which phenomenon?
A) Experimental Bias
B) Sampling Bias
C) Placebo Effect
D) Social Desirability Bias
E) Bystander Effect
D
Why is replication important in scientific research?
A) It helps to create a representative sample of cases to study
B) The natural setting eliminates the artificial environment of a lab
C) Researchers can test the impact of beliefs on behavior
D) Repeated research with similar results increases confidence in the reliability of the original findings
E) Replication minimizes preexisting between groups; therefore, it increases validity of such research
D
A researcher wants to investigate the impact of aerobic exercise on life satisfaction. The researcher decides to define aerobic exercise as 90 minutes a week of light jogging and defines life satisfaction as the raw score on a self-reported survey. The researcher’s decision to define these two variables highlights the importance of what?
A) Independent and Dependent variables
B) Random selection of participants
C) Experimental and Control Conditions
D) Operational Definitions
E) Confounding Variables
D
Following a correlation study that shows a specific gene is associated with violent individuals, but not non-violent ones, a news headline announced, “Murder Gene Triggers Violent Acts”. Why is this headline misleading?
A) It explains phenomenon in hindsight
B) It sees illusory correlations as being real
C) It is confusing correlation with causation
D) It is trying to make order in a series of random events
E) It is making sweeping generalizations from an unrepresentative sample
C
Because she had a serious traffic accident on the night of a full moon of last month, Angela is convinced that all nights with a full moon will bring bad luck. Angela’s belief best illustrates what phenomenon?
A) Illusory Correlation
B) Hindsight Bias
C) The Illusion of Control
D) Hawthorne Effect
E) Placebo Effect
A
In the hypothesis, “Students who study a list of terms while listening to classical music will recall more terms than students who study the list while listening to rap music”, which of the following is the independent variable?
A) Memory
B) List of Terms
C) Type of Music
D) Number of items recalled on the list
E) Students
C
In the hypothesis, “Students who study a list of terms while listening to classical music will recall more terms than students who study the list while listening to rap music”, which of the following is the dependent variable?
A) Rap Music
B) List of Terms
C) Type of Music
D) Number of items recalled on the list
E) Students
D
To choose a representative sample for a survey on the attitudes of drug use among students attending Sunshine University, what would a researcher need to do?
A) Advertise in the campus newsletter, soliciting volunteers who are concerned about campus drug use
B) Make efforts to include in the sample every single student attending the university
C) Use random sampling from a list of all registered students on the campus
D) Make sure to use random assignment
E) Make sure that there are many different people of differing racial groups and religions represented in the sample
C
Which of the following demonstrates a positive correlation?
A) As study time decreases, students tend to achieve lower grades
B) As levels of self-esteem decline, levels of anxiety increases
C) Gas mileage increases as the weight of a vehicle decreases
D) The ability to drive a car decreases as the amount of alcohol in one’s body increases
E) As levels of aerobic exercise increase, obesity rates decreases
A
Hypotheses are best described as which of the following?
A) Predictions
B) Assumptions
C) Theories
D) Confirmations
E) Explanations
A
In a group of five individuals, two report annual incomes of $50,000, and the other three report incomes of $25,000, $35,000, and $40,000, respectively. What is the mode of the distribution of these five individuals’ salaries?
A) $25,000
B) $40,000
C) $50,000
D) $20,0000
E) 250,000
C
The arithmetic average of a distribution of scores is called what?
A) Mean
B) Mode
C) Median
D) Standard Deviation
E) Range
A
Which makes finding statistical significance more likely?
A) The difference between the sample averages is large
B) Small Sample Size
C) Operational Definitions
D) P > .05
E) A high correlation coefficient
A
Which of the following accurately describes a normal curve?
A) The mean, the mode, and the median are all the same
B) The standard deviation is located at the highest point of the curve
C) The median is at the highest point, while the mode and the mean are one standard deviation away from the median
D) It is positively skewed
E) It is negatively skewed
A
In preparation for the AP Psychology Exam, Sara and Ivan each studied for two hours. Sam studied for 9, Alice 12, and Marvin studied for 25 hours. What was the median number of hours studied by these individuals?
A) 2
B) 9
C) 10
D) 12
E) 50
B
In a distribution of test scores, which measure of central tendency would likely be the most affected by a couple of extremely high or low scores?
A) Mean
B) Mode
C) Median
D) Standard Deviation
E) Range
A
Rasheed rolls six games at his bowling tournament. His scores are 150, 167, 178, 180, 190, 210, and 220. What is the range of his scores?
A) 10
B) 20
C) 70
D) 179
E) 216
C
Which measure of variation is most affected by extreme scores?
A) Mean
B) Mode
C) Median
D) Small Sample Size
E) Range
E
All of the following can be determined by using descriptive statistics EXCEPT:
A) Mean
B) Measures of Variability
C) Frequency Distributions
D) Statistical Significance
E) Central Tendencies in Data
D
If scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) are normally distributed, with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, what percentage of scores will fall between 85 and 115?
A) 34
B) 45
C) 50
D) 68
E) 95
D
Which of the following accurately describes the scores in a skewed distribution?
A) Scores are concentrated at both sides of the mean
B) Scores are evenly distributed around the mean
C) Scores demonstrate a large standard deviation
D) Scores are concentrated on one side of the distribution
E) The mean, the mode, and the median are all the same
D
What does it mean when the results of a research are statistically significant?
A) Results of the test are positively correlated with another factor
B) Most scores are one standard deviation from the mean
C) Results were likely due to chance
D) The researcher accepts a 5 percent likelihood that the results occurred by chance
E) The data formed a negative skewed distribution
D
Set A Set B
60 60
56 56
59 35
62 78
61 86
63 66
65 65
58 58
58 36
59 88
60 33
Which of the following is true about the two sets of data as seen above?
A) Set A has a higher median score than Set B
B) Set A has a higher standard deviation
C) Set B has a higher standard deviation
D) The range of Set A is higher than Set B
E) Set B has a higher mean than Set A
C
If scores on a verbal test are normally distributed, with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 10, what percentage of scores will fall between 80 and 120?
A) 34
B) 50
C) 68
D) 95
E) 99
D
A researcher who publishes the results of a case study might be most worried about violating which ethical principle of human experimentation?
A) Debriefing
B) Informed Consent
C) Protection From Harm
D) Double-Blind
E) Confidentiality
E
Which of the following defines ethical principles that should guide human experimentation?
A) Confidentiality, debriefing, protection from harm, and informed consent
B) Control group, random sampling, random assignment, and experimental group
C) Sample size, statistical significance, measures of central tendency, and variation
D) Correlation, case study, naturalistic observation, and survey
E) Ability to withdraw from study, volunteer participants only, no deception, and incentives for participation
A
A researcher who deceives participants about the goals of the research needs to fully inform them of the true nature of the study later, according to which ethical principle of human experimentation?
A) Confidentiality
B) Informed Consent
C) Debriefing
D) Protection From Harm
E) Truthfulness
C
All of the following are reasons why psychologists use animals in research EXCEPT:
A) Animals’ lives are easier to control than the lives of humans
B) It is much easier to see the effect of a manipulation in simple animals, like sea slugs or rats, than in humans
C) Long-term effects are more immediately observed in animals than in humans
D) There are no ethical guidelines that need to be adhered in the case of animal experimentation
E) Researchers can treat animals in such ways that cannot be used to treat humans
D
A psychologist using the method of naturalistic observation would
A) Carefully design controlled situations in which to observe behavior
B) Rely on observations of subjects’ responses to questionnaires
C) Observe behavior as it happens outside the laboratory or clinic
D) Make records of the behavior of clients treated in therapy
C
In a study of effects of alcohol on driving ability, the control group should be given
A) A high dosage of alcohol
B) One-half the dosage given the experimental group
C) A driving test before and after drinking alcohol
D) No alcohol at all.
D
A scientific explanation that remains tentative until it has been adequately tested is called a(n)
A) Theory
B) Law
C) Hypothesis
D) Experiment
C
A study to determine the degree of relationship between two events is called
A) Naturalistic Observation
B) The Correlational Method
C) A Controlled Experiment
D) The Survey Method
B
__________ is an ability to evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, and synthesize information.
A) Critical Thinking
B) Transductive Thinking
C) Deductive Thinking
D) Creative Thinking
A
The phrase “a theory must also be falsifiable” means
A) Researchers misrepresent their data
B) A theory must be defined so it can be disconfirmed
C) Theories are a rich array of observations regarding behavior but with few facts to support them
D) Nothing
B
The products of naturalistic observation are best described in terms of
A) Explanation
B) Theory
C) Prediction
D) Description
D
A teacher believes that one group of children is very bright and that a second is below average in ability. Actually, the groups are identical, but the first group progresses more rapidly than the second. This demonstrates
A) The self-fulfilling prophecy
B) The placebo effect in a natural experiment
C) Observer bias in naturalistic observation
D) The ethical problems of field experiments
A
A psychologist observes the confrontation between two rival neighborhood gangs from the window of an abandoned building. This method of collecting observations is best described as
A) Experimental Regression
B) Naturalistic Observation
C) Controlled Experimentation
D) Clinical Case Study
B
In an experiment to find out if taking ginseng increases IQ scores, the IQ scores would be
A) The Independent Variable
B) A Control Variable
C) An Extraneous Variable
D) The Dependent Variable
D
Which of the following is considered a disadvantage of naturalistic observation?
A) It provides an overabundance of information
B) It deals with behavior not tampered with by outside influences
C) It limits biased observations through careful record keeping
D) It does not identify the cause of observed behavior
D
Subjects are said to be assigned randomly when
A) They are assigned to experimental and control groups from a sample which is representative of the larger population.
B) They each have an equal chance of being assigned to either the experimental or control group.
C) They are assigned to experimental and control groups so that the groups differ on some critical variable before the experiment begins.
D) Neither the experimenter nor the subject knows whether the subject is in the experimental or control group.
B
A psychologist watches the rapid eye movements of sleeping subjects and wakes them to find they report that they were dreaming. She concludes that dreams are linked to rapid eye movements. This conclusion is based on
A) Pure Speculation
B) Direct Observation.
C) Deduction From Direct Observation.
D) Prior Prediction.
C
To prevent ethical abuse in psychological research, the APA has suggested that
A) Psychologists must treat all subjects with respect and concern for the subject’s dignity.
B) Psychologists must avoid deception with using human subjects
C) All data collected from a person must be made public.
D) All psychological harm to subjects must be corrected by counseling.
A
A common method for selecting representative samples is to select them
A) Randomly from the larger population
B) Strictly from volunteers
C) By threatening or coercing institutionalized populations
D) From confidential lists of mail order firms
A
Three major ethical concerns of psychological researchers are deception, lasting harm to subjects, and
A) Morality of the question under investigation
B) Loss of future research possibilities
C) Falsified results
D) Invasion of privacy
D
An experimenter conducts an experiment on the effects of a drug to control hallucinations. He declares the results to be “statistically significant,” which usually means that
A) Even though appropriate statistics were used, no differences could be detected between experimental and control groups.
B) The results have important implications for theory or practice
C) Differences between experimental and control groups of this size occur by chance only 5 times out of 100 (or less)
D) Differences between experimental and control groups were so large they could never occur by chance alone
C
We wish to test the hypothesis that music improves learning. We compare test scores of students who study to music with those who study in silence. Which of the following is an extraneous variable in this experiment?
A) The presence or absence of music
B) The students’ test scores
C) The amount of time allowed for the studying
D) Silence
C
The statistical technique that combines results of a large number of studies is called
A) Experimental Correlation
B) Statistical Linear Analysist
C) Meta-Analysis
D) Hypothetical Analysis
C
An experiment is performed to see if background music improves learning. Two groups study the same material, one while listening to music and another without music. The independent variable is
A) Learning
B) The Size Of The Group
C) The Material Studied
D) Music
D
The chief function of the control group in an experiment is that it
A) Allows mathematical relationships to be established
B) Provides a point of reference against which the behavior of the experimental group can be compared
C) Balances the experiment to eliminate all extraneous variables
D) Is not really necessary
B
Which of the following coefficients of correlation indicates the strongest relationship between two sets of variables?
A) -0.98
B) 0.90
C) 0.00
D) 1.20
A
The most powerful research tool is a (an)
A) Clinical Study
B) Experiment
C) Survey
D) Correlational Study
B
A major disadvantage of the experimental method is that
A) Private funding can never be obtained
B) APA Ethical Review Committees often do not approve of the research techniques
C) There is a certain amount of artificiality attached to it
D) Subjects are difficult to find for research projects
C
A researcher determines that the crime rate in a large city fluctuates with the phases of the moon. He concludes that the gravitational pull of the moon influences human behavior. He has committed what error?
A) He incorrectly inferred correlation from causation
B) He incorrectly inferred causation from correlation
C) He failed to measure the gravitational pull to test his hypothesis
D) He has overlooked the placebo effect
B
Students who do better in high school tend to do better in college. This is an example of
A) A Negative Correlation
B) A Zero Correlation
C) A Positive Correlation
D) A Perfect Correlation
C
In the traditional learning experiment, the effect of practice on performance is investigated. Performance is the __________ variable.
A) Independent
B) Extraneous
C) Dependent
D) Control
C
Collection of observable evidence, precise definition, and replication of results all form the basis for
A) Scientific Observation.
B) The Scientific Method.
C) Defining A Scientific Problem
D) Hypothesis Generation
B
An advantage of the experimental method in psychology is
A) The identification of a cause- and-effect relationship
B) Similar to the correlational method in that causality is determined
C) That the surroundings are always similar to real life experiences
D) That it is an informal way to investigate behavior
A
A correlation coefficient of 0 means that there is
A) A strong negative relationship between the two variables
B) A strong positive relationship between the two variables
C) A perfect positive relationship between the two variables
D) No relationship between the two variables
D
The independent variable in an experiment is
A) The subject himself
B) A measure of the subject’s behavior
C) The variable that the experimenter chooses to manipulate
D) Any unwanted variable that may adversely affect the subject’s performance
C
In order to summarize or organize a series of observations in some meaningful way, psychologists may develop
A) Hypotheses
B) Experiments
C) Surveys
D) Theories
D
Basic ethical guidelines for psychological researchers include
A) Ensuring that participation is involuntary.
B) Harming the subjects when necessary.
C) Minimizing confidentiality.
D) Providing results and interpretations to participants.
D
Which of the following best describes a double-blind experimental procedure?
A) All subjects get the experimental procedure
B) Half the subjects get the experimental procedure, half the placebo; which they receive is known only to the experimenter
C) Half the subjects get the experimental procedure, half the placebo; which they receive is not known to subjects or experimenters
D) All subjects get the control procedure
C
A set of exact procedures that represent particular variables is called a(n)
A) Abstract Definition
B) Operational Definition
C) Case Study
D) Defining Characteristic
B
A friend states that since he has been taking vitamin C, he has not had a single cold. His observation has little value in assessing the effects of vitamin C because
A) There was no control group for comparison
B) He has not calculated a correlation coefficient
C) Of the effect of the observer on the observed
D) He does not specify his dosage of vitamin C
A
A simple experiment has two groups of subjects called
A) The dependent group and the independent group
B) The extraneous group and the independent group
C) The before group and the after group
D) The control group and the experimental group
D
An example of the “experimenter effect” would be a situation in which the experimenter
A) Acts out the proper behavior for the subjects
B) Deceives the subject as to the real purpose of the experiment
C) Unknowingly hints to subjects what is expected of them
D) Overtly tells the subjects how to respond
C
Which of the following is considered by the text to be a pseudo-psychology?
A) Cognitive Psychology
B) Behaviorism
C) Gestalt Psychology
D) Astrology
D
To investigate the effects of a particular study method on student performance, two different methods are tried, each with a different group of subjects. If only the experimenter knows which method is under investigation, the procedure being used is described as
A) Double-Blind
B) Single-Blind
C) Self-Fulfilling Prophesy
D) Representative Sampling
B
The results of carefully controlled observations of Clever Hans and his ability to solve math problems showed
A) He could do math
B) He could add, but he could not subtract
C) He was cued by the owner looking up or down
D) None of these could be determined by observation
C
The study of unusual events is to __________ as information from a large number of people is to __________.
A) Clinical Method; Naturalistic Observation
B) Correlational Method; Survey Method
C) Experimental Method; Naturalistic Observation
D) Clinical Method; Survey Method
D
One of the limitations of the survey method is
A) Observer Bias
B) That it sets up an artificial situation
C) That replies may not be accurate
D) The self-fulfilling prophecy
C
I work at a university, and my research is designed to be of immediate use in the classroom. My research would be called
A) Basic
B) Applied
C) Impractical
D) Ethical
B
In terms of critical thinking and testing, results should
A) Be Incredible
B) Be Repeatable
C) Be Subjective
D) Be Meta-Analytical
D
A variable, such as the personality of a subject, that might affect the outcome of an experiment would be controlled by
A) Random assignment of subjects.
B) Assuming the effects of the variable are negligible.
C) Manipulating the dependent variables simultaneously.
D) Repeating the experiment several times until the results are consistent.
A
In my experiment, I am going to investigate how sleep affects anxiety. The number of hours of sleep the subjects have is called the __________ variable.
A) Control
B) Experiential
C) Dependent
D) Independent
D
With respect to astrology, palmistry, and phrenology, it can be said that
A) All are pseudo-psychology’s
B) None is subject to the P. T. Barnum effect
C) They rarely appear to “work” due to the fallacy of positive instances
D) Astrology is the only system with a scientific basis
A
A major problem with the survey method is
A) Identifying the group to be questioned
B) Obtaining a representative sample of subjects to be questioned
C) Obtaining enough information in a short amount of time
D) That it cannot reveal very much about significant psychological events in the lives of the people tested
B
An observation that the higher the air temperature, the lower the activity of test animals would be an example of a
A) Negative Correlation
B) Positive Correlation
C) Causal Relationship
D) Zero Correlation
A
To assess clients’ abilities, a phrenologist would want to
A) Read their handwriting
B) Examine their skulls
C) Study their palms
D) Record their EEGs
B
To replicate an experiment means to
A) Use control groups and experimental groups
B) Use statistics to determine the effect of chance
C) Control for the effects of extraneous variables
D) Repeat the experiment using either identical or improved research methods
D
The conditions that a researcher wishes to prevent from affecting the experiment are called
A) Constants
B) Dependent Variables
C) Extraneous Variables
D) Independent Variables
C
One of the characteristics of the scientific method is
A) Repeatable Results
B) Top-Secret Information
C) Analysis Measurement
D) Emotive Reasoning
A
In the simplest experiment, the two groups of subjects are treated exactly alike except for the __________ variable.
A) Independent
B) Dependent
C) Extraneous
D) Control
A
The steps involved in the scientific method include?
A) Axioms
B) Common Sense
C) Experimentation
D) Hypothetical Theory Formulation
C
__________ is an inherent part of the scientific method.
A) Observation
B) Common Sense
C) Reinforcement
D) Analysis
A
The story of Clever Hans, the mathematical horse, illustrates the use of controlled observation to test a series of
A) Hypotheses
B) Theories
C) Axioms
D) Learning Strategies
A
When subjects in an experiment are chosen so that each has an equal chance of being in either the experimental group or the control group, we say that the subjects have been assigned
A) Alternately
B) Hypothetically
C) Randomly
D) Consecutively
C
The survey method involves
A) An in-depth study of the opinions and attitudes of a selected individual
B) An overview of the attitudes and backgrounds of selected groups
C) Direct observation and recording of a representative sample of behavior
D) Careful questioning of a representative sample of people
D
The following type of method can be used in order to create a real world laboratory.
A) Correlational Coefficients
B) Field Experiment
C) Case Study
D) Random Assignment
B
To be confident that a cause-and-effect relationship exists, it is necessary to
A) Engage in naturalistic observation
B) Develop a positive correlation
C) Perform a controlled experiment
D) Test for a negative correlation
C
An experiment is performed to test the effects of sleep deprivation on rote memory. In this experiment, the dependent variable is the
A) Number of hours subjects go without sleep
B) Rote memory scores
C) Number of subjects deprived of sleep in the experimental group
D) Correlation between hours of sleep and fatigue
B
The fortune teller who studies your palm carefully before announcing that “great fortune lies in your immediate future” is practicing __________ psychology.
A) Applied
B) Commonsense
C) Pseudo-
D) Forensic
C
Research on the benefit of aspirin to prevent heart attacks used only male subjects in the sample. Both men and women are given this advice. The problem with this recommendation reflects
A) Gender Bias
B) Courtesy Bias
C) Cultural Bias
D) Age Bias
A
To estimate the degree of the relationship between birth order and achievement motivation, a researcher would do a(n) __________ study.
A) Naturalistic
B) Inventory
C) Correlational
D) Experimental
C
In the method of naturalistic observation, psychologists
A) Haphazardly encounter behavior as it naturally occurs
B) Set up controlled experiments by which they uncover causal elements in behavior
C) Set out to actively observe subjects in their natural environments
D) Interview subjects at different ages
C
Two variables may be said to be causally related if
A) They show a strong positive correlation
B) All extraneous variables are controlled, and the independent variable creates consistent differences in behavior of the experimental group
C) They are observed to co-vary on many separate occasions
D) They have been observed in a laboratory setting
B
The problems of observers seeing only what they expect to see is called
A) Observer Bias
B) The Experimenter Effect
C) The Effects of The Observer
D) The Halo Effect
A
Giving placebos in drug experiments is necessary to
A) Counteract the random assignment of subjects
B) Counteract the side effects of the drug
C) Control for the effects of suggestion and expectation
D) Keep control subjects from knowing they have been given the drug
C
Which of the following could serve as an experimental hypothesis?
A) Although 25% of U.S. drivers say that they use the seatbelts in their cars, only 14% really do
B) A case history of multiple personality appeared to be caused by traumatic childhood experiences
C) College women who are anxious tend to want to be together
D) As the temperature increases, the number of hit batters in baseball increases
C
Theories explain results, predict future outcomes, and
A) Rely only on naturalistic observations
B) Guide research for future studies
C) Rely only on surveys
D) Rely only on case studies
B
Which of the following coefficients of correlation indicates the weakest relationship between two sets of variables?
A) 0.08
B) -0.29
C) 0.48
D) -1.00
A
A correlation coefficient of -1.09 indicates a(n)
A) Strong Positive Correlation
B) Strong Negative Correlation
C) Cause/Effect Relationship
D) Error in Computation
D
A representative sample is an essential element of the
A) Survey Method
B) Psychoanalytic Method
C) Natural Experiment or Case Study
D) Clinical Method
A
The effects of brain injury on personality would usually be investigated by the use of the
A) Experimental Method
B) Case Study Method
C) Naturalistic Observation Method
D) Survey Method
B
One of the limitations of the case study is that
A) There are few subjects for which it is applicable
B) There are no control groups
C) It is not applicable to the study of bizarre behavior
D) It requires a large and expensive sample size
B
A scientist wants to find out if there is empirical evidence for a relationship between caffeine and aggressive behavior. She would
A) Interview people to get their opinions
B) Correlate newspaper accounts and the types of beverages consumed
C) Test the idea by conducting an experiment
D) Research what other experts had thought
C
The essence of the experimental method is
A) Accurate calculation of correlation’s
B) Obtaining direct reports from subjects about their subjective experiences
C) Careful measurement and record keeping
D) Using control to identify cause-and-effect connections
D
If you’re trying to establish a causal relationship between a reinforcer and increased performance, you should use a(n) __________ method.
A) Clinical Study
B) Experimental
C) Survey
D) Correlational
B
In a weight-reduction experiment, an overweight individual was given what the researcher called a new type of diet pill that would help curb the desire to eat. In fact, the pill really contained powdered milk, but ever since the individual started taking the diet pill, he has reported that his desire to eat has decreased. This illustrates the
A) Curvilinear Relationship
B) Effect of Extraneous Variables
C) Natural Experiment
D) Placebo Effect
D
An educated guess about what is controlling some behavior is called
A) Experimental Control
B) A Hypothesis
C) An Experimental Variable
D) A Theory
B
A correlation coefficient is best characterized as a(n)
A) Measure of the extent of the relationship between two variables
B) Index of the causal direction between an independent and dependent variable
C) Indication of the likelihood that an experimental finding will be replicated by others
D) Measure of the likelihood that observed differences may be attributed to chance
A
In order to determine the cause of behavior, the questions we ask must be
A) Tentative
B) Testable
C) Based On Theory
D) Novel
B
A common sense approach to psychology is
A) The most reliable
B) Often contradicted by empirical evidence
C) The basis for most psychological theories
D) The basis for collecting data (observed facts)
B
Responding to a substance like a sugar pill as if it were a drug is called
A) The Placebo Effect
B) An Extraneous Factor
C) Variability
D) Psychosomatic illness
A
The control group and the experimental group in an experiment are treated exactly the same except for the
A) Dependent Variable
B) Independent Variable
C) Extraneous Variables
D) Replication Variables
B
A field experiment is one that
A) Uses the “real world” as a laboratory
B) Tests a field or “range” of independent variables
C) Differs little from naturalistic observation
D) Requires no measurement of dependent variables
A
Characteristics of the scientific method include
A) Anecdotal Definition
B) Controlled Observation
C) Analysis Formulation
D) Adherence to inductive thinking or common sense reasoning
B
A correlational study is one that determines
A) The relationship between the independent and the dependent variable
B) The effects of the observer on the observed
C) Cause-Effect Relationships
D) The relationship between two events.
D