Apes chapter study guide topography Essay

Weathering- breaking rock down by biological, physical and chemical processes Topography-surface features of the land Humus- decomposed organic matter Leaches- movement of water and dissolved chemicals through the ground Alleviation- deposition of leached minerals in the lower layers of the soil Soil Profile- vertical section of soil showing the soil horizons O-Horizon- uppermost layer of the soil rich in organic matter A-Horton- dark colored horizon containing organic matter mixed with mineral soil E-Horizon- light-colored, heavily leached horizons sometimes present between A and B horizons a-Horizon- lighter in color than the A horizon, the B horizon is rich in minerals that leached out of the upper layers.

Usually high in iron, aluminum and clay C-Horizon- contains weathered rock fragments and borders the understated parent material Machinery- symbiotic relationship between roots of plants and fungi in the soil McCollum- thread-like body of fungi Biotic- nonliving Texture- the relative proportions of sand, silt and cay in a soil Sand- the coarsest mineral particles (0. Mm to 2 mm in diameter) It isn’t necessary to memorize the actual size range but you should know these are coarser than silt or clay. Silt- medium-sized mineral (0. 002 to 0. 05 mm in diameter) Clay- the finest mineral particles (less than 0. 002 mm in diameter) Loam- soil containing approximately 40% sand, 40% silt and 20% clay. Loam is excellent for most agricultural uses.

Erosion- movement of soil from one area to another Solicitation- the salinity of soil increases over time due to poor irrigation and soil management practices Desertification- the conversion of productive land into unfertile desert Shelter’s- rows of trees planted to reduce erosion from wind Exaggerators- simultaneously growing trees and other crops to improve soil fertility and prevent soil erosion

1 . Alt can take between years to form an inch of topsoil.

2. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms acid affect the soil? Acid. How does this

3. Name the four components of soil and describe the importance of each.

4. Describe some of the ecosystem services provided by soil organisms.

5. It is not necessary to memorize each soil order and its characteristics but you should understand that each soil order is associated with a particular climate and boomed (plant community)

12. List the major agents of erosion.

13. Describe the problems that result from soil erosion.

14. Explain how humans often cause or accelerate soil erosion through poor soil management.

15. Explain how soil erosion can affect aquatic ecosystem.

16. The agency once called the Soil Conservation Service is now called

17. How may soil erosion impact hydroelectric facilities?

18. Describe adaptations of prairie plants to survive the periodic droughts this region experiences.

19. How does this adaptation of prairie plants help protect the soils from erosion during drought?

20. What steps did the Soil Conservation Service take to protect the soil and prevent further soil erosion in the years after the Dust Bowl era ended?

21 . What role did the Gallon Aquifer play in the recovery of agriculture in the prairie tastes? How is use of the Gallon Aquifer affecting the aquifer?

22. Explain how farm practices may disrupt natural nutrient cycles.

23. Compare the soils of tropical rainforest’s with those of most temperate regions. Why does this create particular difficulties when this region is converted to farmland?

24. What causes the solicitation of soil in some regions?

25. Describe three ways humans can cause desertification.

26. Describe how conservation tillage may help to maintain soil fertility.

27. Explain why crop rotation can help maintain soil fertility.

28. What is contour plowing? What problem does it reduce?

29. What problem is reduced by terracing?

30. What is the difference between an organic fertilizer and an inorganic fertilizer?

31 . What problems may be caused by reliance on commercial inorganic fertilizers?

32. Describe the two steps of soil reclamation.

33. Describe two advantages of composting your organic waste instead of putting it in the trash or down a garbage disposal.

34. Describe three benefits of the use of organic mulches.

35. How does the Conservation Reserve Program (CROP) benefit the environment?