Ch15/16 – The ANS + Vision – Saladin

This cranial nerve is the only nerve to innervate structures in the thorax and abdomen.
Vagus
What receptor will be affected by norepinenphrine?
Alpha and Beta- adrenergic
The ________ do not synapse in the sympathetic chain ganglia.
Splanchnic Nerves
Which cranial nerve sends branches to the heart?
X – vagus nerve
The ANS controls all of the following effectors..
Glands
Cardiac Muscle
Smooth Muscle
The parasympathetic nervous system is associated with what activity?
Urination
The adrenal gland is a modified
_________.
post-ganglionic sympathetic ganglion
Parasympathetic fibers leave the brainstem as part of which four crainal nerves?
III, VII, IX, X
(3,7,9,10)
Ciliary muscle relaxion for far vision is an example of a ______
effect.
Sympathetic
Blood vessles are in a state of partial contraction called __________ that is determined by the firing frequency of the sympathetic nervous system.
Vasomotor tone
Characteristic of the ANS
Controls smooth and cardiac muscle
Characteristic of the PNS
Decreases heart rate
The autonomic system has both sympathetic and __________ divisions.
Parasympathtic
The communticating rami are
efferent fibers
The efferent pathway of the ANS consists of ____________.
multiple neurons which synapse at a ganglion
The location of efferent neuron cell bodies is __________.
always found in the CNS for both the somatic and ANS.
The efferent pathway for the somatic nervous system ___________.
synapses directly with the effector
The efferent pathway for the sympathetic nervous system may consist of ______.
1. synapses just outside the spinal cord at a paravertebral ganglion
2. synapses in a ganglion just outside the receptor
Autonomic tone refers to the fact that:
both systems are active at the same time but activity may shift with the body’s needs
The parasympathetic division of the ANS has fibers that leave the brain stem by way of the cranial nerves. What nerve is it?
hypoglossal nerve
Input from parasympathetic nerves decreases heart rate while input from the sympathetic nerves increase heart rate.
This is an example of ____________.
antagonistic effects
What organ consists of postganglionic neurons without dendrites or axons?
adrenal gland
One organ that is NOT a target of the
splanchnic nerve is ________.
lungs
The ______ communicating ramus has preganglionic fibers that travel from spinal nerve to a paravertebral ganglion.
White communicating ramus
Unlike the somatic nervous system, the ANS has both ________ and _______ that synapse at a ganglion.
preganglionic & postganglionic fibers
Neruotransmitters for the ANS include
both _________ and _____________.
acetylcholine & norepinephrine
The ANS is also called the
visceral motor system
The parasympathetic division has what effect on the gastrointestinal tract?
It excites the gastrointestinal tract
If the _____ nerves to the heart are cut the heart rate will __________.
PARASYMPATHETIC nerves are cut to heart, the heart rate will INCREASE.
The fight or flight response is triggered by stimulation by the _______ division of the ANS.
Sympathetic division
The receptors that sense increased blood pressure are part of an autonomic reflex arc called _____________.
baroreceptors
Sympathetic fibers can follow what 3 routes?
1. the spinal nerve route
2. the synpathetic route
3. the spanchnic nerve route
The enteric nervous system is a component unlike the other divisions of the ANS in that its fibers __________________.
do not arise from the brain stem and spinal cord
There are how many postganglionic
neurons for every preganglionic neuron in the sympathetic division?
17
The pupils of the eye will ____ in response to stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system.
dilate
If stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system, the uterus will
either relax or contract
When stimulated by the parasym-pathetic division, the bronchi will:
constrict
Adipose tissue will not respond to stimulation by the _______, but it will respond to stimulation by the _________.
will not respond – parasympathetic division
will respond to – sympathetic division
Salivation is an example of ________.
cooperative effects
The major control center of the visceral motor system is the ____________.
hypothalamus
There are how many postganglionic neurons for every preganglionic neuron in the parasympathetic division?
2
Several regions of the brainstem mediate autonomic responses.
1. Give 3 examples of mediation.
2. Give an example of not being mediated by the brainstem.
1. salavation, pupillary constriction, BP

2. defecation

Some of the nerves that innervate lymph nodes have been discovered to be adrenergic (can release NE). This would suggest that _____ .
the sympathetic nervous system may influence lymph node activity.
The effector pathway of the ANS generally contains _________.
two neurons
ALL PREganglionic autonomic neurons secrete __________.
acetylcholine
ALL POSTganglionic neurons bear these receptors:
nicotinic
The parasympathetic nervous system does NOT affect the ____________.
adrenal glands