Chapters 1-5

Franz Boas is dressed to explore the Arctic. This illustrates humans’ ability to deal with their environment through
material culture
What are the steps of the scientific method in their proper order?
Identify a problem; state a hypothesis; collect data; test the hypothesis
New research in Ethiopia in 2001 changed the way we think about human origins by demonstrating that the earliest hominins lived in
woodlands
Which of the following is NOT a uniquely human activity:
making a bookshelf
growing corn
climbing a tree
gossiping with friends
climbing a tree
Physical anthropology is the study of human __________ and human biocultural _________
evolution; variation
For your physical anthropology research project, you report that you measured the length of 150 gorilla thighbones, and you suggest that the two groups you found represent different sexes. What problem might your professor have with this report?
Your report does not attempt to test a hypothesis
Physical anthropologists can understand human biological variation by looking at changes in
genes, health, lifestyle
Your professor researches the Turkana pastoralists of Kenya, investigating both the genetic changes that allow them to easily digest milk and the role that dairy animals have played in their history. Your professor most likely uses which of the following methods in her research?
the biocultural approach
Which of the following would a physical anthropologist NOT study to learn more about humans:
genes and reproduction
pottery and stone tools
disease and nutrition
bones and teeth
pottery and stone tools
Several forensic anthropologists have dealt with the aftermath of Argentina’s “Dirty War” (1970s and 1980s) during which many people disappeared. Which of the following techniques would be inappropriate for anthropologists to use in attempting to find and identify these individuals:
studying skeletons, using methods of physical anthropology
excavating mass graves, using archaeological techniques
creating a glossary of the local language, using methods of linguistic anthropology
talking to locals who were alive at the time, using ethnographic methods of cultural anthropology
creating a glossary of the local language, using methods of linguistic anthropology
T/F: Swine flu (H1N1) is the result of viral evolution
True
T/F: Comparing the skeletons of Aegyptopithecus and Oreopithecus, two extinct species of primates, can provide physical anthropologists information about the human past
True
Your cousin insists that he ran into your doppelganger the spitting image of you at the mall. You counter this assertion with your knowledge of physical anthropology by replying that
both Malthus and Darwin observed that variation exists within a species and no two members are exactly alike
The “peppered” moths of northern England range from light-colored to dark-colored. During the Industrial Revolution, soot and smoke covered trees, and the peppered moth population became predominantly dark-colored, as these moths were better able to avoid predation by blending into their surroundings. This example illustrates which force of evolution?
natural selection
T/F: The HMS Beagle, whose path is seen here, circumnavigated the globe
True
Darwin did not know about genes but believed that traits passed from parents to offspring by particles called
gemmules
One of the theories put forth to explain the evolution of modern humans is that Homo sapiens arose more or less simultaneously in a variety of major geographical locales in the Old World (Europe, Africa, and Asia) through interbreeding of populations. A criticism of this theory based on the forces of evolution is that
there would have been insufficient gene flow among the relatively few Homo sapiens in the world to maintain a single gene pool
Your history professor is interested in genealogy and tells your class that, on his mother’s side, he is descended from the original Amish population, a religious and insular group of people in Pennsylvania who tended to marry within their social circle. He also notes that many of his extended family members have the condition polydactyly, an extra finger or toe. The high frequency of polydactyly in your professor’s ancestry is an example of _________________ in the Pennsylvania Amish
genetic drift
T/F: In a simplified example of eye color inheritance, B stands for the allele for brown eyes and is dominant. Blue eyes are represented by the recessive allele b. A child who inherits one of each allele from her parents will have the genotype Bb and therefore have brown eyes.
True
This picture shows two variants in ___________ or physical appearance of seven characteristics of the pea plant
phenotype
T/F: The largest organelles in a cell are the mitochondria
False
T/F: Prokaryotes have multiple cells while eukaryotes have one
False
An offspring with the chromosome pair XX will be
female
T/F: This picture demonstrates that E. coli is a prokaryotic bacterium
True
During a visit to the circus, you and a friend stumble into a tent with a “freaks of nature” display. Your friend points out a photograph of a man whose left arm is protruding from his left hip rather than from his shoulder. You explain to your friend that this condition was likely caused by a mutation in the man’s
homeotic genes
Structural proteins found in the human body are responsible for all of the following EXCEPT:
the shape of your femur
the size of your wisdom teeth
when you went through puberty
whether your hair is straight or curly
when you went through puberty
The somatic type of eukaryotic cells makes up:
bone and muscle
skin and fat
hair and brain
all of these are correct
all of these are correct
If you wanted to sequence the genome of Ötzi, the 5,300-year-old “Iceman” mummy found in the Alps in 1991, which method would you be most likely to use?
PCR
Human and chimpanzee DNA is about _________ identical
98%
If one side of the DNA ladder includes the sequence CTAATGT, the complementary base configuration for this sequence will be
GATTACA
The three patterns of natural selection are
stabilizing, directional, and disruptive
T/F: This diagram represents the founder effect, that is, when a population moves into a new area and becomes reproductively isolated
True
Another name for a reproductive population is
deme
Compared to the normal male karyotype, a man affected by Klinefelter’s syndrome has
one more X chromosome
The genotype that confers protection against malaria while allowing an individual to survive and reproduce is
AS
T/F: The gene pool includes only the beneficial traits in a population
False
T/F: Mutation is the only source of new genetic material
True
T/F: A change in allele frequencies from one generation to the next is an example of evolution
True
This figure shows significant genetic change in horses over millions of years, which is also called
macroevolution
The case of the peppered moth and industrial melanism during the Industrial Revolution in England illustrates
change in frequency of the nonmelanic genotype
The medullary cavities of bone exist in the
diaphyses
T/F: These children are suffering from hypoxia (short)
False
A gradual change in phenotype over a geographical area is called a
cline
The concept of race began
during the Renaissance
Frank Livingstone, a noted physical anthropologist, is famous for having said about human diversity in appearance, “There are no _________; there are only ___________”
races; clines
T/F: For humans, hair loss and sweating are both thermoregulatory adaptations to heat
True
People who live in the areas of the world highlighted in red have adapted to these particular geographical conditions and are likely to
be short
One of your classmates moved to the United States from Somalia as a kid in the late 1990s. After seeing a picture of his family, you notice that he and his sister must have been undernourished for several years. You arrive at this conclusion because your classmate
and his sister are both much shorter than their parents
T/F: In general, populations living between 0-20°N latitude have the darkest skin color
False
According to Bergmann’s and Allen’s rules, all of the following are true EXCEPT:
the Igbo of Nigeria have narrow bodies
the Berbers of Morocco have long limbs to dissipate heat
the Inuit in Greenland are tall and long-limbed
the Yupik of Alaska have short, squat bodies to retain heat
the Inuit in Greenland are tall and long-limbed
What is anthropology?
study of humans
bicultural approach
holistic
multiple perspectives
all times periods
Big question of anthropology
What does it mean to be humans?
4 subfields of anthropology
1) cultural
2) archaeology
3) linguistic
4) biological
5 specialties within biological anthropology
1) primatology
2) paleoanthropology
3) human biology
4) bioarchaeology
5) forensic anthropology
3 main figures in history of biological anthropology
Franz Boas, Aleš Hrdli?ka, Earnest Hooton
Franz Boas
scientific method
Aleš Hrdli?ka
professional society
scientific journal
Earnest Hooton
trained most of 1st generation of physical anthropologists
Scientific Method
purpose – research – hypothesis – experiment – analysis – conclusion
6 events of human evolution (what makes us human)
1) bipedalism
2) non-honing chewing
3) material culture
4) speech
5) hunting
6) agriculture
General belief system in Middle Ages
fixity of species
Great chain of being
Aristotle
God – Angel – Heaven – Human – Beast – Plant – Flame – Stone – The Ladder of Intellect
Fixity of species
Earth is “full”
Ray
reproductive isolation
1st taxonomy (physical)
Buffon
environment as agent of change
interaction between environment & living forms
Linnaeus
nomenclature
Hooke
fossils
Lamarck
acquired characteristics
body senses “need” and “want”
1st model of evolution
Lyell
founder of geology
time depth of earth
uniformitarianism
Malthus
population increase
competition for resources
Wallace
theory of natural selection
sent Darwin essay
Main aspects of Darwin’s theory of natural selection
evolution
finches on Galapagos Islands – natural selection
biological variation is inherited
nature is selective
favorable traits (based on environment)
The level that natural selection and evolution each work on
natural selection – the individual
evolution – populations
Blending inheritance
2 pure breds = hybrids with no blending
Mendel and his experiments
pea plants
multiple generations
Mendelian inheritance
genes inherited
allele
different form of gene (example: tall or short)
dominant
always physically expressed
recessive
masked by dominant allele
genotype
pair of alleles
phenotype
physical appearance
homozygous
2 alleles are the same (example: RR or rr)
heterozygous
2 alleles are different (example: Rr)
Requirements of Mendelian traits
simple trait
2 alleles at 1 locus
2 phenotypes
3 genotypes
1 dominant and 1 recessive
Evolutionary synthesis
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution (natural selection) + Mendel’s Heredity (traits passed)
Prokaryotes
3.5 bya
single-celled bacteria
no nucleus
no organelles
Eukaryotes
1.2 bya
some single-celled
all multicellular organisms
DNA contained in nucleus
organelles
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
genetic info
packaged as chromosomes
RNA
ribonucleic acid
used in making proteins
DNA structure
double stranded/double helix
sugar & phosphate group
nucleotides
DNA base pairs
Adenine & Thymine
Cytosine & Guanine
3 Functions of DNA
1) stores and carries genetic information
2) replicates itself
3) controls protein synthesis
Types of RNA
mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
Genes and the 3 types
1) structural
2) regulatory
3) homeobox
structural genes
examples: hair color, skin color, blood type
regulatory genes
on/off switches for genes
examples: puberty, Marfan syndrome
homeobox genes
regulate body formation during development
examples: leg antennae
2 types of cells
1) somatic – diploid
2) gametes – haploid
mitosis
occurs in somatic cells
1 replication
1 cell –> 2 cells
diploid
meiosis
occurs in gametes cells
1 replication
2 cells –> 4 cells
haploid
Law of Segregation
during the production of gametes the two copies of each hereditary factor segregate so that offspring acquire one factor from each parent
Law of Independent Assortment
allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes
incomplete dominance
1 dominant allele
(example: Rr)
complete dominance
2 dominant alleles, both fully expressed
(example: RR)
microevolution
short term
(example: minutes/hours)
macroevolution
long term
(example: days/months/years)
4 forces of evolution
1) mutation
2) genetic drift
3) gene flow
4) natural selection
4 types of mutation
1) point
2) frameshift
3) transposable
4) chromosomal
2 causes of mutation
1) spontaneous
2) induced
spontaneous mutation
occur during DNA replications
induced mutation
caused by exposure to mutagens
(example: UV rays, radiation,
stabilizing selection
cuts off extreme traits
directional selection
favors 1 extreme trait
disruptive selection
favors both extreme traits
(can form 2 new species)
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
equilibrium = not evolving
compares ideal population to real population
similar = no evolution
exogamous mating
more gene flow, more variation
endogamous mating
less gene flow, less variation
patrilocal
males remain in birthplace, females migrate
matrilocal
females remain in birthplace, males migrate
positive assortative mating
when people choose to mate with persons similar to themselves
negative assortative mating
when people avoid mating with persons similar to themselves
inbreeding
sexual reproduction from closely related people or animals, especially over many generations
measuring simple traits
blood typing
measuring complex traits
light reflectance (skin color) & anthropometry (growth)
Race is a __________ concept
social
T/F: There are a set number of races
False; there are unlimited races & no clear cut boundaries
clines
continuous variation
Blumenbach
biological taxonomy based on skin color and cranial variation
“5 races” which did not change
Boas
claimed the race concert to be invalid
said race is not static
Lewontin
tested race concept based on genetics
races only accounted for 5-10% of population
90% shared by all groups
4 levels of human adaptation
1) genetic: natural selection
2) developmental: during growth
3) acclimatization: throughout life
4) cultural: behavioral changes
stress
interference with homeostasis
homeostasis
maintains body within its normal limits
plasticity
ability to respond to stress
functional adaptation
response to stress
biological adjustments within a lifetime
acclimation
minutes to hours
acclimatization
days to months
physiological adaptation to heat
acclimation: sweating, vasodilation
acclimatization: lower heart rate, lower body core temperature
developmental acclimatization to high altitude
permanent change
NOT genetic
results from continuous exposure to stress during growth/development
(example: shorter, larger lungs)
Bergmann’s Rule
larger species = cold environment
smaller species = warm/hot environment
Allen’s Rule
shorter, bulkier limbs = cold environment
longer, narrower limbs = warm/hot environment
melanocytes
pigments
melanin
dark colored pigment
protects from UV radiation
skin color and altitude
high altitude = light skin favorable
skin color at equator
darkest
skin color at the poles
lightest
What protects skin from UV?
folic acid & vitamin D
hypoxia
body tissues do not get adequate oxygen
rickets
lack of vitamin D
biological adaptation to disease
immune system: antibodies
genetics: “natural” immunity
cultural adaptation to disease
treatment: antibiotics & vaccines
clean water, good public sanitation
infectious disease
caused by microorganisms
bacteria, virus, fungi, parasite, etc.
noninfectious disease
rated to behavior, age, etc.
endemic
persistent in population
stays at low levels
epidemic
rapid increase in # of cases
specific area
pandemic
epidemics that affect a larger area or the world
(example: AIDS)
aspects of culture that impact disease
population size
food acquisition method
degree of mobility
sanitation
technology
hunting-gathering
endemic
few noninfectious
small, mobile groups
short life expectancy
fewer sanitation problems
farming
infectious: endemic & epidemic
few noninfectious
larger population
sedentary
short life expectancy
poor sanitation, water contamination, & animals
urban
epidemic & pandemic
few noninfectious
large & dense populations
sedentary
trade & warfare
short life expectancy
poor sanitation & water contamination
modern society
low infectious: epidemic & pandemic
high noninfectious
large & dense populations
sedentary
medical technology: antibiotics & vaccines
long life expectancy
good sanitation