Looking at earthquakes In particular, which are vibrations of he earth caused by rupture and sudden movement of rocks that have been strained beyond their elastic limits, their effects can affect various factors and can trigger secondary hazards heightening, and even adding to, the already present effects. Too certain extent I disagree with that statement as other geological hazards can triggered by the occurrence of an earthquake therefore these hazards arena ignored but In fact able to managed with responses such as lad and search and rescue able to come help In the response effort.
This Is demonstrated In various situations. The iris being the geological hazard of a tsunami. A tsunami is a giant sea wave caused by a large scale and sudden disturbance of sea water caused by large rapid movement of the sea floor initiated, nine times out of ten, by an earthquake – 90% of tsunamis occur in the Pacific basin. Detection of tsunami relies heavily on earthquake (seismic) monitoring out In the ocean. Taking the Japan Earthquake of 2011 for example, the earthquake (measuring 9. 0 on the Relater scale) occurred km off the Sandal coast as a result of the North American plate being subjected by the Pacific late.
This caused the plate to slip upwards by 5-km, triggering a tsunami. The tsunami traveled at hundreds of kilometers per second generating a wave height of 1 mm. It is because of the earthquake being newsworthy and monitored that this tsunami was known and warnings were given to the people in Japan – within 90 seconds of the earthquake the people of Japan knew a tsunami was going to hit allowing them to evacuate the area to higher ground as the tsunami took 30 minutes to reach the coast from off land. This warning system Involves text messages being .NET to everyone in areas that were likely to be hit and it being displayed on TV’s and radio.
Due to this evacuation it saved many lives as in Minima-Sanitaria half the population were able to escape to safety. However, just because we know that tsunami’s can be triggered by earthquakes it doesn’t mean that these other geological hazards have stopped being Ignored, as advances In seismology have continued yet not much has been done to prevent/reduce the effects of tsunami. Keeping with the Japanese Earthquake of 2011, the vast majority of buildings with Tokyo are life safe. This means that the buildings can absorb or resist the shock/ ground waves the earthquake releases.
As the buildings are able to do this it can saves lives and stop the buildings from collapsing. Whereas, not many preventative measures have been put in place to help against tsunamis and not many are well which was meant to intercept and reduce the strength and size of the water but that didn’t happen. Instead, the largest breakwaters in the world were broken and the sea water inundated smoke of land with whole cities ruined. This then affected growth f crop as the sediment which was carried by suspension in the sea water, remained on the surface of the land for two months which stopped the crops from growing.
This had disastrous effect on the economy of not Just the local people who for them agriculture was their source of income but for the local government as well who relied on the port and the surrounding area for the export of fish and other agricultural goods. This isn’t the case for everywhere because in some locations, advances in science related to other geological hazards is on the increase and these illogical hazards aren’t being ignored and if an event was to occur then people living in that area would be prepared and the effects would hopefully be minimal.
For example, in the area surrounding Met. Tent and in Iceland, there is constant research being carried out into volcanically, which has led to advances in how to reduce and protect you against the effects of a volcanic eruption. In Iceland, the Icelandic MET office monitors various changes and provides data to issue warnings to the locals if there is a good chance that a volcano in the surrounding area may erupt. They have also found out that they can use sea water to cool the lava (as demonstrated in Hammy) which cools and solidifies lava flow reducing that danger.
The Icelandic Government have also scheduled hazard education and emergency response training to everyone in order for whole communities to be prepared and act sensibly in an eruption and have created FUTURE-VOLE. This is an organization which aims to carry out long term monitoring to enable us to understand more about volcanoes & their associated hazards and to be able to respond to them effectively and efficiently o limit damage and the effects caused. On the other hand, Met. Tent has used different techniques to prevent/reduce the volcanic hazard effects.
In previous eruptions they have used explosives to direct lava from its course to prevent the lava destroying whole towns and villages in its path. They have also enforced that no roads or constructions can take place in the area surrounding the area, the only building work that can take place is only necessary maintenance which is usually to the observation building monitoring the volcano. The scientists have also produced a detailed computer stimulated hazards map showing where the biggest impact will occur. This will allow the rescue efforts to be concentrated there.
This demonstrates how other geological hazards aren’t ignored to out peril and research is constantly being carried out into volcanoes and their associated hazards. Nevertheless, it is true that we ignore other geological hazards in favor of reporting about earthquakes. The main of reason of this is because of the LED and MED divide. MED countries can afford to research and implement laws and rules which help educe the effects and hopefully help prevent people from experiencing dyer effects as a result of a geological hazard.
This is shown in the fact that Japan and the United State of America are at the forefront of research into earthquakes and its associated hazards with Iceland and Italy at the forefront of research into volcanically and its associated hazards. This is because countries like these can afford to spend part of their budget on constructing life-safe buildings, using earthquake resistant materials people know how to react effectively, efficiently and safely if a geological hazard occurs e. G. The regular earthquake drills in San Francisco.
Whereas, in a LED they don’t have the finance to do this hence why even though earthquakes are known about those geological hazards along with others destroy cities and affect the whole country. For example, Haiti is part of a multi-hazardous zone. It experiences earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes and the rainy season on regular occasions. On one occasion it has suffered extremely badly. In January 2012, a 7. 0 magnitude earthquake with 59 aftershocks hit the country of Haiti and with it affected 3. Million UT of a population of 10. Million (80% of these were living under the poverty line). As it is a LED, it’s the lowest country on the Human Development Index of the Americas and Western Hemisphere; they can’t afford to help reduce the effects of a geological hazard. They use poor quality material to build their homes. The material consisted of used brittle steel, weak cement with dirty sand and steel reinforcement roads terminated at Joints which could only collapse at the slightest bit of ground movement.
Over 293,000 homes were destroyed making many families homeless and avian to live in temporary shelters set up by International Aid. As everyone was focused on the earthquake, people forgot about the rainy season which hit the country in March every year. Because of this major effects were added to the already growing problems in Haiti and only set back the relief and response efforts already established in the country. The rainy season caused mud slides and with many still living in camps the spread of disease increased as they were drinking the same contaminated water.
Then in September Just as the country was beginning to recover tornado hit the city destroying 6000 tents which was shortly followed by Hurricane Atoms which killed 4000 and set off another cholera outbreak in the area. This then made international aid and relief increase their presence and finance donation to the country in order to get people healthy and out of tents into a better living environment. This demonstrates that in Leeds that other geological hazards, including earthquakes to some extent, are ignored to our peril causing disastrous effects not Just socially but environmentally and economically too.
In conclusion, too certain extent other geological hazard are ignored at our peril in favor of publicizing earthquakes, especially in LED countries where they do not have the finance to research and help prevent/reduce the effects of geological hazards other than the main geological hazard of earthquakes, even still relying on information and research carried out by MED countries. Yet other geological hazards are ignored to our peril because they are being researched into with plans in place but they aren’t as well documented as efforts into earthquakes are.