Federalist Papers 10, 51 and 78

Federalist Paper 10
James Madison

Addresses the question of how to guard against “factions”, or groups of citizens, with interests contrary to the rights of others or the interests of the whole community. Madison argued that a strong, big republic would be a better guard against those dangers than smaller republics—for instance, the individual states.

Madison explains that in a large republics there will be many different factions, held together by regional or local interests, that none of them will dominate national politics. It is important to devise a plan of Government that can control the “instability, injustice, and confusion” brought about by factions.

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Federalist Paper 51
James Madison

Separation of the national governments powers into three branches, executive, legislative, and judicial

Federalist Paper 78
Alexander Hamilton

Basis for the courts power of judicial review

Federal Judges have a lifetime term, it is the “weakest” and “least dangerous” branch of government, and because of this the branch must be able to defend against the other two stronger branches.