a. chromatids remain attached to one another until anaphase.
b. metaphase chromosomes become aligned at the metaphase plate.
c. chromosomes are grouped during telophase.
d. the nucleus is located prior to mitosis.
e. new spindle microtubules form at either end.
a. a chromosome in G1 of the cell cycle
b. a replicate chromosome
c. a chromosome found outside the nucleus
d. a special region that holds two centromeres together
e. another name for the chromosomes found in genetics
a. The daughter cells have half the amount of cytoplasm and half the amount of DNA.
b. The daughter cells have half the number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.
c. The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.
d. The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and the same amount of DNA.
e. The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and twice the amount of DNA.
a. the spindles contain microfibrils in addition to microtubules, whereas animal spindles do not contain microfibrils.
b. sister chromatids are identical, but they differ from one another in animals.
c. a cell plate begins to form at telophase, whereas in animals a cleavage furrow is initiated at that stage.
d. chromosomes become attached to the spindle at prophase, whereas in animals chromosomes do not become attached until anaphase.
e. spindle poles contain centrioles, whereas spindle poles in animals do not.
d. cytokinesis alone
e. binary fission
a. The complete complement of an organism’s genes
b. A specific set of polypeptides within each cell
c. A specialized polymer of four different kinds of monomers
d. A specific segment of DNA that is found within a prokaryotic chromosome
e. An ordered display of chromosomes arranged from largest to smallest
a. Genes correspond to segments of DNA.
b. Many genes contain the information needed for cells to synthesize enzymes and other
c. During fertilization, both the sperm and the ovum contribute genes to the resulting
d. One gene only is used in a specific cell type.
e. Genetic differences can result from changes in the DNA called mutations.
a. Individuals reproducing asexually transmit 100% of their genes to their progeny, whereas individuals reproducing sexually transmit only 50%.
b. Asexual reproduction produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parents, whereas sexual reproduction gives rise to genetically distinct offspring.
c. Asexual reproduction involves a single parent, whereas sexual reproduction involves two.
d. Asexual reproduction requires only mitosis, whereas sexual reproduction always involves meiosis.
e. Asexual reproduction is utilized only by fungi and protists, whereas sexual reproduction is utilized only by plants and animals.
a. Every human cell
b. Each human chromosome
c. The entire DNA of a single human
d. The entire human population
e. Each human gene
a. The set of unique physical characteristics that define an individual
b. The collection of all the mutations present within the genome of an individual
c. The combination of chromosomes found in a gamete
d. A system of classifying cell nuclei
e. A display of every pair of homologous chromosomes within a cell, organized according to size and shape
according to size and shape
a. are both present in every somatic cell of males and females alike.
b. are of approximately equal size and number of genes.
c. are almost entirely homologous, despite their different names.
d. include genes that determine an individual’s sex.
e. include only genes that govern sex determination.
a. The species is diploid with 32 chromosomes per cell.
b. The species has 16 sets of chromosomes per cell.
c. Each cell has 8 homologous pairs.
d. During the S phase of the cell cycle there will be 32 separate chromosomes.
e. A gamete from this species has 4 chromosomes.
leads directly to the formation of gametes?
a. Sporophyte meiosis
b. Gametophyte mitosis
c. Gametophyte meiosis
d. Sporophyte mitosis
e. Alternation of generations