Final Pt. 2 of 3 – Pt 1

1. The centromere is a region in which

a. chromatids remain attached to one another until anaphase.

b. metaphase chromosomes become aligned at the metaphase plate.

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c. chromosomes are grouped during telophase.

d. the nucleus is located prior to mitosis.

e. new spindle microtubules form at either end.

a. chromatids remain attached to one another until anaphase.
2. What is a chromatid?

a. a chromosome in G1 of the cell cycle

b. a replicate chromosome

c. a chromosome found outside the nucleus

d. a special region that holds two centromeres together

e. another name for the chromosomes found in genetics

b. a replicate chromosome
3. If there are 20 chromatids in a cell, how many centromeres are there?

a. 10

b. 20

c. 30

d. 40

e. 80

a. 10
4. How do the daughter cells at the end of mitosis and cytokinesis compare with their parent cell when it was in G1 of the cell cycle?

a. The daughter cells have half the amount of cytoplasm and half the amount of DNA.

b. The daughter cells have half the number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.

c. The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.

d. The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and the same amount of DNA.

e. The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and twice the amount of DNA.

d. The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and the same amount of DNA.
5. Which term describes centromeres uncoupling, sister chromatids separating, and the two new chromosomes moving to opposite poles of the cell?

a. telophase

b. anaphase

c. prometaphase

d. metaphase

e. prophase

b. anaphase
6. Where do the microtubules of the spindle originate during mitosis in both plant and animal cells?

a. centromere

b. centrosome

c. centriole

d. chromatid

e. kinetochore

b. centrosome
7. Regarding mitosis and cytokinesis, one difference between higher plants and animals is that in plants

a. the spindles contain microfibrils in addition to microtubules, whereas animal spindles do not contain microfibrils.

b. sister chromatids are identical, but they differ from one another in animals.

c. a cell plate begins to form at telophase, whereas in animals a cleavage furrow is initiated at that stage.

d. chromosomes become attached to the spindle at prophase, whereas in animals chromosomes do not become attached until anaphase.

e. spindle poles contain centrioles, whereas spindle poles in animals do not.

c. a cell plate begins to form at telophase, whereas in animals a cleavage furrow is initiated at that stage.
8. Chromosomes first become visible during which phase of mitosis?

a. prometaphase

b. telophase

c. prophase

d. metaphase

e. anaphase

c. prophase
9. The somatic cells derived from a single-celled zygote divide by which process?

a. meiosis

b. mitosis

c. replication

d. cytokinesis alone

e. binary fission

b. mitosis
10. What is a genome?

a. The complete complement of an organism’s genes

b. A specific set of polypeptides within each cell

c. A specialized polymer of four different kinds of monomers

d. A specific segment of DNA that is found within a prokaryotic chromosome

e. An ordered display of chromosomes arranged from largest to smallest

a. The complete complement of an organism’s genes
11. Which of the following statements about genes is incorrect?

a. Genes correspond to segments of DNA.

b. Many genes contain the information needed for cells to synthesize enzymes and other

proteins.

c. During fertilization, both the sperm and the ovum contribute genes to the resulting

fertilized egg.

d. One gene only is used in a specific cell type.

e. Genetic differences can result from changes in the DNA called mutations.

d. One gene only is used in a specific cell type.
12. Asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction differ in all but which of the following ways?

a. Individuals reproducing asexually transmit 100% of their genes to their progeny, whereas individuals reproducing sexually transmit only 50%.

b. Asexual reproduction produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parents, whereas sexual reproduction gives rise to genetically distinct offspring.

c. Asexual reproduction involves a single parent, whereas sexual reproduction involves two.

d. Asexual reproduction requires only mitosis, whereas sexual reproduction always involves meiosis.

e. Asexual reproduction is utilized only by fungi and protists, whereas sexual reproduction is utilized only by plants and animals.

e. Asexual reproduction is utilized only by fungi and protists, whereas sexual reproduction is utilized only by plants and animals.
13. The human genome is minimally contained in which of the following?

a. Every human cell

b. Each human chromosome

c. The entire DNA of a single human

d. The entire human population

e. Each human gene

a. Every human cell
14. A gene’s location along a chromosome is known as which of the following?

a. Allele

b. Sequence

c. Locus

d. Variant

e. Trait

c. Locus
15. What is a karyotype?

a. The set of unique physical characteristics that define an individual

b. The collection of all the mutations present within the genome of an individual

c. The combination of chromosomes found in a gamete

d. A system of classifying cell nuclei

e. A display of every pair of homologous chromosomes within a cell, organized according to size and shape

e. A display of every pair of homologous chromosomes within a cell, organized
according to size and shape
16. The human X and Y chromosomes

a. are both present in every somatic cell of males and females alike.

b. are of approximately equal size and number of genes.

c. are almost entirely homologous, despite their different names.

d. include genes that determine an individual’s sex.

e. include only genes that govern sex determination.

d. include genes that determine an individual’s sex.
17. Which of the following is true of a species that has a chromosome number of 2n = 16?

a. The species is diploid with 32 chromosomes per cell.

b. The species has 16 sets of chromosomes per cell.

c. Each cell has 8 homologous pairs.

d. During the S phase of the cell cycle there will be 32 separate chromosomes.

e. A gamete from this species has 4 chromosomes.

c. Each cell has 8 homologous pairs.
18. In animals, meiosis results in gametes, and fertilization results in

a. spores.

b. gametophytes.

c. zygotes.

d. sporophytes.

e. clones.

c. zygotes.
19. Referring to a plant sexual life cycle, which of the following terms describes the process that

leads directly to the formation of gametes?

a. Sporophyte meiosis

b. Gametophyte mitosis

c. Gametophyte meiosis

d. Sporophyte mitosis

e. Alternation of generations

b. Gametophyte mitosis