Politics and government exist In all human groups and societies. But their form has various dimensions. These two terms Involve the people and the process that takes over a particular state. Both of these terms refer to the system that is in control of the country or state. Politics social processes or strategy in any position of control which people gain, use or lose power the pattern of growth and change in a society over the years. He art or science of government b : the art or science concerned with guiding or Influencing governmental policy : the art or science concerned with winning and holding control over a government A social process through which individuals and groups acquire and exercise power and authority Government Is the organization through which the state expresses and enforces its will. Is a group of people that has the power to rule in a territory, according to the law. Formal organization that has the authority to make and enforce laws Something that has been organized or made into an ordered whole. A government is a group of people that has the power to rule in a territory, according to the law. This territory may be country, a state or province within a country, or a region. Characteristics of a Government makes laws, rules, and regulations, collect taxes and print money. Has systems of Justice has a police force has diplomats has a military force 2.
Governments have systems of justice – that list the acts or activities that are against the law and describe the punishments for breaking the law. 3. Governments have a police force to make sure people follow the laws. 4. Governments have diplomats who communicate with the governments of other countries by having meetings. Diplomats try to solve problems or disagreements between two countries, which can help countries to avoid war, make commercial agreements, and exchange cultural or social experiences and knowledge. . Governments have a military force such as an army that protects the country if other countries attack, or which can be used to attack and invade other countries. The leader of a government and his or her advisors are called the administration. Power The probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his own will despite resistance (Max Weber) the ability of a person or group to affect the behavior of others despite resistance and opposition Sources of Power
Force – actual or threatened use of coercion has been institutionalized and is recognized by people FORCE- When a leader imprisoned or even execute political protesters Terrorists when seizing or bombing an embassy INFLUENCE – persuade/ convince AUTHORITY- IN CONNECTION WITH those who hold legitimate power through elected or pubic acknowledged position State A group of people, permanently occupying a definite territory, independent of foreign rule, and having an organized government Characteristics of the State Sovereignty – decides its own foreign and domestic policies
Citizenship – The status of a citizen with its attendant duties, rights, and privileges. Nationalism – set of symbols and beliefs providing the sense of being part of a single political community decides its own foreign and domestic policies; neither subordinate nor responsible to any other authority; sovereignty distinguishes the state from all other, lesser political units Sovereignty is the power of a state to do everything necessary to govern itself, such as making, executing, and applying laws; imposing and collecting taxes; making war and peace; and forming treaties or engaging in commerce with foreign nations.
Nationalism is a belief, creed or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with his or her home country or nation. Nationalism should be distinguished from the related construct of patriotism, which is the extent to which an individual offers support for his or her home country or nation. National flags, national anthems and other symbols of national identity are commonly considered highly important symbols of the national community Citizenship Rights Civil Rights – rights of the individual in law.
Political Rights – right to participate in election and to run for public office. Social Rights – rights of ever individual to enjoy a certain minimum standard of economic Unlearn and security Politics Social process through which individuals and groups acquire and exercise power and authority Government formal organization that has the authority to make and enforce laws Power ability of individuals or groups to make their own interests or concerns count even En others resist.
State Group or group of people having an organized government Theoretical Analysis of Power Pluralist Model Marxist Model Theories of Power: Pluralist, Elitist and Marxist Pluralism -how power is distributed Elitism how power is concentrated Marxism -class conflict and economic power rhea people rule An analysis of politics emphasizing the role of diverse and competing interest groups n preventing too much power being accumulated in the hands of political and economic elites. Pluralism Analyses 1 . Political power is fragmented and dispersed. 2.
The existence of classes, political parties, status groups, pressure groups,interest groups, etc. Testifies to the distribution of power 3. Groups provide a more effective means of representation than election. 4. Public policy is the outcome of group forces acting against one another. 5. No one group will dominate for every group there will be an equal indisposition. 6. The larger the group the more influence it will have. 7. Policies are the product of bargaining and compromise, will tend to Bonaparte , fair to all and conducive to social stability. . The state is neutral between these competing groups and acts like referee between them Power-Elite Model A few people rule An analysis of politics that sees power as concentrated among the rich. (C. Wright Corporate Rich, Executive Branch, Military Leaders Interest group Leaders, Legislators, Local opinion leaders Unrecognized, exploited masses Bias in the System itself An analysis of power that explains politics in terms of the operation of a society economic system Marxist in which power is distributed according to the accumulation of capital.
Owners of capital operate behind the scene to manipulate the political process,and indoctrinate the mass of the working classes into accepting the unequal economic structure of society. Elitist Pluralist Marxist Source of power elite grouping Interests capitalist mode of production Nature of power concentrated dispersed Analysis of power neutral positive critical pluralist in which power is diffused widely angstrom’s between which there is imputation for political office through the electoral system, which is open to all. . Elitist, in which power is concentrated in leaders whammy be elected or appointed, for whose posts there slitter or no competition, entry to which is limited. 3. Marxist the mass of the working classes intercepting the unequal economic structure of society. Power Beyond Rules Political Revolution Terrorism A political revolution is the overthrow of one political system in order to establish another.
Reform Change within a system Revolution Change of the system itself A political revolution, in the Trotsky theory, is an upheaval in which the government s replaced, or the form of government altered, but in which property relations are predominantly left intact. Terrorism Consists of acts of violence or the threat of such violence used by an individual or group as a political strategy. Authority Heartaches in German, which generally means ‘domination’ or ‘rule’ Max Weber Identified and distinguished three types of legitimate domination Rational-legal authority rotational authority Charismatic authority patterns. 2] Charismatic Authority: Power legitimated by extraordinary personal abilities that inspire devotion and obedience.  Rational-Legal Authority: Also known s bureaucratic authority, is when power is legitimated by legally enacted rules and regulations such as governments.  Rational-legal authority depends for its legitimacy on formal rules and established laws of the state, which are usually written down and are often very complex. The first type discussed by Never is Rational-legal authority.
It is that form of authority which depends for its legitimacy on formal rules and established laws of the state, which are usually Mitten down and are often very complex. The power of the rational legal authority is mentioned in the constitution. Modern societies depend on legal-rational authority. Government officials are the best example of this form of authority, which is prevalent all over the world. Traditional authority derives from long-established customs, habits and social structures.
The second type of authority is Traditional authority, which derives from long-established customs, habits and social structures. When power passes from one generation to another, then it is known as traditional authority. The right of hereditary monarchs to rule furnishes an obvious example. The Tudor dynasty in England and the ruling families of Emmer, in Restaurants (India) are some examples of traditional authority. Never traced traditional domination back to patriarchs, their households, and the ancient tradition of family. In such systems, the master is designated in accordance Ninth the rules of inheritance.
Patrimonial government occurs when the ruler’s household expands to governmental offices. All officials are personal dependents or favorites of the ruler, and are appointed by him. Feudalism replaced the paternal relationship of patrimonies with a contract of allegiance based on knightly militarism. Charismatic authority Refers to power made legitimate by a leader’s exceptional personal or emotional appeal to his or her followers. The third form of authority is Charismatic authority. Here, the charisma of the individual or the leader plays an important role.
Charismatic authority is that authority which is derived from “the gift of grace” or En the leader claims that his authority is derived from a “higher power” (e. G. God or natural law or rights) or “inspiration”, that is superior to both the validity of traditional and rational-legal authority and followers accept this and are willing to follow this higher or inspired authority, in the place of the authority that they have hitherto been following. Examples in this regard can be NT Ram Raw, a matinee idol, ho went on to become one of the most powerful Chief Ministers of Andorra Pradesh.
Forms of Government Forms of government may be classified according to the relationship of the rulers and the ruled. Monarchy Aristocracy Authoritarianism Totalitarianism Monarchy A single family rules from generation to generation. It is legitimated by tradition. Absolute Monarchy – hereditary rulers claims a monopoly of power based on divine right Constitutional Monarchy – ruler rules in accordance with the constitution A form of government in which few persons – the aristocrats holding exceptional rank ND privileges, especially the hereditary nobility, exercise the political power of the state.
An aristocracy is rule by the aristocrats. Aristocrats are typically wealthy, educated people. Many monarchies have really been ruled by aristocrats. Today, typically, the term “aristocracy” is used negatively to accuse a republic of being dominated by rich people, such as saying, “The United States has become an aristocracy. Authoritarianism A political system that denies the popular participation in the government Kinds: Monarchies – power is held by a claimant to a throne Dictatorship – power is gained and held by an individual ants – power is seized by military officers in a coup against the existing government rhea most controlling political form A highly centralized political system that extensively regulates people’s lives Democracy rhea supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected delegates. Democracy is a government of the people, by the people, and for the people” – Abraham Lincoln Capitalist Approach rhea freedom to act in whatever ways maximize personal profit or other advantages. It is marked by inequality of income and wealth. Socialist Approach Their economies meet everyone’s basic needs for housing, schooling, wok, and medical care. Two types of democratic Form: Pure/Direct- the perfect expression of popular sovereignty Representative/ Indirect – the voters elect representatives who are responsible for making political decisions.
Organization also known as the Philippine National Government is the national government of the Republic of the Philippines. Three interdependent branches: the legislative branch the executive branch the Judicial branch. Executive Department rhea executive power is vested in the President of the Philippines The President is also the Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and is elected by popular vote to a term of six years. The executive seat of government is administered officially from Malignant Palace in Manila.
The second highest official is the Vice President. And is also elected by popular vote. Is first in line to succession if the President resigns, is impeached or dies. Legislative Department of the Senate and House of Representatives. The upper house is located in Papas, Nile the lower house is located in Guenon City. Judicial Department rhea Judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court of the Philippines and lower courts established by law. The Supreme Court, which has a Chief Justice as its head and 14 Associate Justices, occupies the highest tier of the Judiciary.