The main challenge In this field Is to minimize the impact these activities have on the environment as well as on human beings while meeting the nation’s energy demands. The upstream activity of oil and as reserves had many effects like oil spills, damaged land, accidents, fires and incidents of air, water and noise pollution. Management of environment, health and safety has been a very significant Issue due to regulations In force, stricter monitoring by concerned authorities, concern by common man and Interest taken by industry for its survival and growth.
Thus the paper presents the rising effect of the unfriendly activities in onshore oil and gas sector which are affecting the quality of environment as well as human beings and the ways of mitigation or prevention of the arioso risks associated with petroleum industry, outlining the commercial, technical and social challenges that could Influence the future context of health safety and environment management In the Industry. 1. Introduction The significance of petroleum In world economy evolved slowly and gradually.
Coal and whale OLL filled the need for Increased energy which was led by The Industrial Revolution. Later on, it was discovered that kerosene can be extracted from crude oil and can be used as lighting and heating fuel. By 20th century demand of petroleum increased significantly and thus, became the most valuable commodity in the world arrest. With the increasing demand, Oil and gas operations are conducted in every corner of the world starting from Alaska to Australia, Peru to China, Arctic to desert, and Mangrove to offshore.
Dependence of society on oil and gas has been Increasing transportation of hydrocarbons. Disaster can strike any time in the oil and gas industry and seldom they does. Such disasters occur throughout the world both onshore and offshore which prove to be hazardous and possesses high risks of fire, explosions, toxic releases and environment pollution if proper precautions are not oaken while carrying out any of the activity related to petroleum or crude oil.
Major accidents like Iambi-Ran oil spill, Jasper OIC Depot, Harlan (Ammonia release) and many others have shaken the confidence of the public about their safety and safety of their property and environment. Some companies are even closed down due to poor safety plans and environmental performance and because of these reasons Major Disaster Government Authorities, Human Activist Groups and Corporate Houses in many countries including India have taken numerous steps to look after the major mishaps which cause loss of human life, property and environmental damage.
For this, various efficient and effective HOSE Management Systems are setup which comprises of HOSE policy, safe work procedures, permit to work system, plant change procedure, audit system, accident/incident reporting and investigation, training of workforce, medical monitoring of employees and many more.
There are various ways to look into oil and gas perspectives: From personal viewpoint, fuels provide us with source of heat during cold weather and cool in hot weather, through these we can cook food, heat water, generate electricity, power appliances and travel from one place to another but increase in the price of these fuels greatly affects the individual. Petrochemical feedstock are used for manufacturing fertilizers, fabrics, synthetic rubber and plastics.
They are important part of personal and household items to heavy duty industrial goods; oil and gas are the raw materials. From a business perspective: As world energy markets are continuously expanding, companies spend billions of dollars annually to maintain and increase their oil and gas production. From Geopolitical Perspective: large quantities of oil and gas export and import rate trade to maximize revenues and improve trade balances. And at the same time, minimize trade deficits and ensure a steady and reliable oil supply respectively.
From internal policy perspective: to develop the resources and attain long-term sustainable benefits and to reduce their dependence on imported oil which leads to long-term contracts, both within individual countries and on the world. From a health, safety and environmental (HOSE) perspective, there is a continuous concern for safety in oil and gas operations, the impacts that various projects have on environment, the possibility of oil spills and effect of pollutants such as carbon dioxide on climate and air quality and on individuals.
Health, Safety and Environment distribution of highly combustible products, the petroleum industry is an extremely high risk industry in terms of the likelihood of large-scale industrial accidents and the potential severity of the economic and social harms that these accidents can inflict. The concern for the Health, Safety and Environment starts from the conceptual stage of a project to operation and abandonment stage because the hydrocarbon ND petroleum products possesses a countless hazard if not handled in a safe manner and can even lead to loss of life and property.
That’s why lot of investment and importance is given on learning and implementing methods to take care of Health, safety and environment all over the hydrocarbon industry. Health, Safety and Environment norms and practices are followed at every stage of plant’s life cycle which takes into reflection, the safety of human beings and environment with the help of the right type of precautionary steps and providing a base of satisfactory achievable working conditions (HOSE Executive).
The basic objective of the framework is to educate the manager on the health, safety and environmental aspects of successful business and provide them with the initial instructions to set up an effective and efficient management system in a petroleum industry. The responsibility of a petroleum manager is to be familiar with the regulatory requirements and comply with the same.
The major accidents that take place in petroleum industry are due to errors or opposed conditions and/or management system breakdown. Challenges involved in having an effect on health, safety and environment conditions are: to have a proactive HOSE management, to integrate HOSE with Business, to control injury/loss of life and co-workers, to provide workman compensation and many more.
The various accidents occur in onshore industry like fire and explosions, collisions, fatigue and corrosion, toxic dispersion, storage problem including contamination, salt dome accidents, overexertion while lifting pipes/ ducts/ bars/boxes/bags/ machine parts, fall from scaffold/ stairs/ ladder, motor vehicle accident, drilling accidents, exposure to noise and many more and they can cause huge loss to direct and indirect cost like loss of life to self or co-workers, workman compensation, cost of injury and investigation, loss of property and material, loss of profits, punitive sanctions and fires, closure/shutdown of installation, public litigation, environmental pollution, ecological damage, loss of business and shareholders wrath. Regulatory agencies had a significant contribution in the promotion of industrial safety in the petroleum industry over years .
These regulatory agencies lay down certain rules/regulations which are the minimum basic acquirement that are very important in the safe design and operations of industrial units. Some of the important regulations listed by the agencies like CB(Central Pollution Control Board), ICE(Chief Controller of Explosive), ICE(Chief Electrical Inspector), COCA(Director General of Civil Aviation), GOODS(Oil Industry Safety Director Rate) are : Petroleum Act, 1934, The Indian Explosives Act, 1884, The Factories Act, 1948, The water Act, 1974, The water chess Act, 1977, The Air Act, 1981, The public Liability Insurance Act, 1991, The Environment Protection Act, 1986 , Manufacture,
Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules,1989, The Hazardous Wastage(Management and handling) Rules,1989, The Indian Boilers Act, 1923, The Indian Electricity Act, 1910, The Oil Mines Regulation,1984, Dock Workers (Safety, industrial safety standards, which is very important for hazardous industries like petroleum operations. Regulations will be useful and bring results only when they are implemented in the right spirit. Owner/ occupier of an installation and their authorized officials are responsible to ensure that the requirements of various regulations are fully complied with. Some of the agencies have to send regular ports of compliance besides taking the necessary approvals, permission, consents and clearances from the concerned authorities and maintaining the conditions specified. 2. Risk Assessment: Risk analysis and risk assessment provide details on Quantitative Risk Assessment (CRA) techniques used world-over to determine risk posed to people who work inside or live near hazardous facilities, and to aid in preparing effective emergency response plans by delineating a Disaster Management Plan (DUMP) to handle onsite and offside emergencies. It involves identification of safety areas, hazard sources, alienable units with recourse to hazard indices, Generation of accidental release scenarios for escape of hazardous materials from the facility, HAZED to identify potential failure, Assessment of risk against the risk acceptability criteria, suggest risk mitigation measures based on engineering Judgments, reliability and risk analysis approaches and up gradation of DUMP. 2. Storage and handling of hazardous materials: Both hazardous and non-hazardous materials generated within the project facility must be temporarily accommodated in appropriate units which are placed within the reject facility built/made in line with the safety, health and environmental standards. For radioactive wastes, storage and handling should be based on Rules for Management of Radioactive Waste under ARAB. Gas cylinders must be stored in the facility, rules applicable for gas cylinders under the Explosives Act shall be followed. Later, these materials must be disposed of at a centralized disposal facility with utmost care following safety norms. 2. Hazard Identification: Hazard substances are classified into flammable, unstable and toxic substances. Identification of hazards, in presence of any hazardous waste generating units within the project facility is of primary significance in the analysis, quantification and cost- effective control of accidents involving chemicals and process. Methods employed for HAZED are Identification of major hazardous units based on Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 of Government of India (as amended in 2000) Identification of hazardous units and segments of plants and storage units based on relative ranking technique, biz. Fire-Explosion and Toxicity Index (FEE). 2.
Disaster Management Plan A disaster is a catastrophic situation in which suddenly, people are plunged into helplessness and suffering and, as a result, need protection, clothing, shelter, medical & social care and other necessities of life. The main objectives of disaster management plan are effective rescue and medical treatment of casualties, safeguard other people, minimize damage to property and the environment, initially the needs of relatives, provide authoritative information to the news media, secure the safe rehabilitation of affected area, preserve relevant records and equipment for he subsequent inquiry into the cause and circumstances of the emergency. 2. Emergency Response Plan It is a plan for response to incidents, injuries and emergencies and should ensure that contaminated areas should be cleaned and exposure of workers should be limited as much as possible during the operation with limited impact on the environment to the extent possible. There should be written procedures for different types of emergencies and the entire workforce should be trained in emergency response. All relevant emergency response equipment should also be readily available. In case of dangerous spills, associated cleanup and firefighting operations should be carried out by specially allocated and trained personnel. To respond to these emergencies there is a response team headed by a senior executive who has control over the affairs of the plant and would be heading the Emergency Organization and would be designated as Site Controller. Manager (Safety) would be designated as the Incident Controller.
In case of stores, utilities, open areas, which are not under control of the Production Heads, Senior Executive, responsible for maintenance of utilities, would be designated as Incident Controller. All the Incident Controllers would be reporting to the Site Controller. 2. 6 Emergency Communication Emergency situation such as fire, growth of fire, leakage, etc. Should be informed to Emergency Control Center. Site Controller verifies the situation from the Incident Controller of that area or the shift in charge and takes a decision about an impending On-site Emergency and the same would be communicated to all the Incident Controllers and Emergency Coordinators. Simultaneously, the emergency warning system would be activated on the instructions of the Site Controller. 2. 7 Emergency Facilities:
These facilities include Emergency Control Centre, Assembly Point, Emergency Power Supply, Fire Fighting Facilities, Location of Windsock, and Emergency Medical Facilities. 2. 8 Environmental Aspects: The major sources of pollution are the gaseous emissions, aqueous and gaseous effluents and discharges of hazardous waste materials from operating units and they have a negative impact on the environment. The effluents could be solid, liquid or gaseous. The effluents can be emitted during the processing of oil and gas, when we consume them as fuel or when we consume the end products. The hydrocarbon the industry, the government and the consumers have to work together to control the effects of pollutants.
Governments ensure stringent product specifications for reducing environment impact by consumption of the product and have set stringent effluent discharge specifications. They have enacted environment related laws and enforcement. Industries invest in technology and treatment plants to meet the specifications and have improved the processing scheme to reduce pollutant generation, along with developing new technologies to treat the effluents. Consumers eave reduced wasteful consumption of products and consumption of energy. Environmental Impact Assessment An EIA is a detailed examination of a proposed development initiative and the environment in which it needs to be constructed and operated.
The main objectives of carrying out EIA are to identify sensitive components of the existing environment within the given area, assist project design and planning by identifying aspects of location, construction, operations and decommissioning which may cause adverse environmental, social, health and economic effects, describes the nature and childhood of environmentally damaging incidents to provide a basis for contingency plans, identify existing and expected environmental regulations that will affect the development and advise on standards, consents and targets, identify environmental issues that may affect the development, recommend an environmental management program for the life of the development, including compliance, monitoring, auditing and contingency planning, provide the basis for support and control documentation and consultation with regulatory and non-regulatory authorities and the public. Extraction of crude is done onshore from land based wells to feed the gas-oil separation plant with product transferred by pipeline or tanker and offshore refers to the process where a hellebore is drilled through the sea-bed in order to extract petroleum which lies in rock formation beneath the sea-bed.
The onshore petroleum industry involves various steps starting from finding the drilling site, making the hole, inserting casing, drilling into the casing and then into the ground, cementing the casing section into place, connecting the blowout prevented, drilling the rest of well ND determining whether the well will produce oil. The major accident in the onshore industry is cited as: Jasper Fire, 2009 : The Jasper oil depot fire broke out on 29 October 2009 at the Indian Oil Corporation’s Depot in a giant tank holding 8,000 kilometers of oil, in Sitar Industrial Area on the outskirts of Jasper, Restaurants. The incident occurred when petrol was being transferred from the Indian Oil Corporation’s oil depot to a pipeline. There were six consecutive explosions, the intensity of the first explosion being 2. 3 on Richter scale.
Fire broke out in eleven storage tanks killing eleven personnel and 150 errors impact to the environment, huge quantities of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxides, sulfur oxides and unborn hydrocarbons escaped into the environment. This caused respiratory problems to the people residing in the nearby areas. Smoke also hit agriculture in the surrounding villages which supply food grain and vegetables to Jasper. THE DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACT, 2005 states that each revenue District must have a Disaster Management Plan; Jasper District did not have any Disaster Management Plan. A Disaster Management Plan for Jasper District was put on 17 November 2009 I. E. 0 days after the accident took place on 29 October 2009.
Conclusion and Recommendations: Strict rules and regulations should be followed so that hazardous effects can be mitigated. Environment management mechanisms need to be uses and implementation by the oil and gas industry, including elements for auditing and reporting, which should be designed to enhance environmental performance. There should be continuous collection of data on use and discharge of chemicals, emissions of effluents, spills and discharges of oil and radioactive substances and measures should be taken to mitigate these emissions. There should be development and implementation of well-equipped method for assessing environment risk for the management of various installations causing harm to the environment.