Intro to psychology Essay

You should base your conclusions . The beliefs held by most people. B. The fundamental notion of common sense. C. Your personal feelings or intuitions, but only if they are reasonable. Incorrect: Conclusions should be based on objectively gathered data that are consistent with the rules of the scientific method. D. Evidence collected according to the principles of the scientific method. Correct: The scientific method consists of steps that help us analyze and solve problems in orderly ways, based on objectively collected information. Difficulty: 2 Skill: Conceptual Answer: d. Evidence collected according to the principles of the scientific method. . 1-3. The subject matter of psychology largely consists of a. Observable behavior of humans. Incorrect: This answer is only half correct, as psychology also considers the behaviors of other species beyond human beings. B. Unobservable behavior of humans. C. Observable behavior of other species of animals. D. Observable behavior of humans and other species of animals. Correct: Psychologists examine the behavior of humans in their environments and in their social and cultural contexts.

Psychologists also study other species in their natural habitats or in the research laboratory. Answer: d. Observable behavior of humans and other species of animals. 1. 1-4. When drawing conclusions about behavior, psychologists rely on a. Their own personal beliefs. Incorrect: One should, in fact, keep their personal beliefs out of their analysis of gathered data and rely on the scientific method and objectively gathered data. B. What is known as “common sense. ” c. Objectively collected information.

Correct: Psychological conclusions are based on evidence that gives psychologists a factual basis for drawing conclusions by using the scientific method. D. Their everyday observations of people. Answer: c. Objectively collected information. % correct 68 a=5 c=68 d=28 r = . 28 1 . 1-5. Which statement is MOST consistent with the perspective taken by psychologists? A. Only human behavior is of interest. Incorrect: Not only is the behavior of non-human animals of interest, so too are the mental processes of human beings. B. Mental processes are of little real importance. C.

Both observable behavior and mental processes are of interest. Correct: Psychologists focus on the behavior of individuals in various settings, while sociologists study social behavior of groups or institutions, and anthropologists study behavior in the broader contexts of culture. D. Behavior should only be studied in a controlled research laboratory. Skill: Applied Answer: c. Both observable behavior and mental processes are of interest. % correct 96 a-2 c=96 r = . 37 1. 1-6. When compared to the work of sociologists and anthropologists, psychologists are likely to focus more on a. Social institutions. B. Individual behavior.

Correct: Psychologists focus on the behavior of individuals in various settings, while sociologists study social behavior of groups or institutions and anthropologists study behavior in the broader context of culture. . Cultural differences in behavior. Incorrect: Actually this emphasis would be more focused on by the anthropologist and sociologist than the psychologist. D. The behavior of people in groups. Answer: b. Individual behavior. % correct 92 a=2 b=92 c=2 d=4 . 21 1 . 1-7. A friend’s curiosity about how the human mind works is coupled with her fascination with computer science and artificial intelligence.

It sounds as though your friend’s interests are consistent with the emerging area of science. A. Social b. Health c. Cognitive Correct: Psychologists’ questions about how the mind works are related to theory and search in computer science, philosophy, linguistics, and neuroscience. D. Biological Incorrect: The relationship between the functioning of the human mind and computers (and AY) is explored by cognitive psychology, not biological psychology. Page Ref: 2-3 Answer: c. Cognitive 1. 1-8. You overhear two psychologists discussing the relative importance of the various levels of analysis researchers may use.

They are most likely to reach an agreement that a. The broadest level of analysis is the most important. Incorrect: All levels of analysis are important for different reasons and at different mimes. B. The narrowest level of analysis is the most important. C. Some levels of analysis are less important than others. D. Different levels of analysis address different questions. Correct: Each level of analysis gives information to the researcher that is important to understanding different aspects of behavior and mental processes. A level of analysis may be very narrow (I. E. An individual’s reaction time) to very broad (I. E. , cultural influences on the individual). Page Ref: 3 Answer: d. Different levels of analysis address different questions. % correct 90 O 10 d=90 r = . 20 1. 1-9. An educational psychologist has decided to do research on reading behavior. If he were to approach this topic from the broadest level of analysis, he would be most likely to study a. Whether readers move their lips while reading. Incorrect: This would be an example of a very narrow level of analysis, and thus wouldn’t be the best answer. B. Whether attitudes toward reading vary around the world.

Correct: At the broadest level of analysis, researchers study the whole person within social and cultural contexts, including cross-cultural differences and similarities. C. The eye movements readers make while reading a page of text. . Left and right brain hemisphere differences in the processing of foreign languages. Difficulty: 3 Answer: b. Whether attitudes toward reading vary around the world. 1 . 1-10. The first task in psychology is to make accurate observations about behavior. This means that psychologists must first a. Predict b. Explain c. Control d. Describe Answer: d. Scribe % correct 64 a-?20 b= 10 c=6 d= 64 behavior. .39 1 . 1-11. A boy complains that his sister has been teasing him. The parents ask him to tell them specifically when she teases him and how it happens; they are asking him o provide behavioral data to support his claim. A psychologist would say that the child is being encouraged to do all of the following EXCEPT a. Observe his sister’s behavior. Incorrect: Observation is part of description, which is what he has been asked to do by his parents. This is one of the four major goals of psychology. B. Explain why his sister teases him.

Correct: The parents are asking for accurate observations of the behavior; they are asking for descriptions of the behavior, rather than explanations of it. Explanations go beyond what is observed. C. Report on his sister’s teasing behavior in an objective cushion. D. Note the conditions under which his sister’s teasing behavior occurs. Answer: b. Explain why his sister teases him. 1 . 1-12. In order to investigate behavior, researchers may use different levels of analysis. Which of the following research questions exemplifies the broadest, most global level of analysis? A. What are the origins of prejudice?

Correct: The broadest level of analysis describes complex social and cultural contexts of behavior and mental processes. B. Are there gender differences in prejudice? C. Are there differences in how various racial groups express prejudice? D. What is the role of early childhood experiences in the formation of prejudice? Incorrect: This would be a rather narrow level of analysis, so it would not be the best answer. Answer: a. What are the origins of prejudice? 1 . 1-13. To investigate behavior, researchers may use different levels of analysis. Which of the following research questions exemplifies the narrowest, most specific level of analysis? . What are the causes of mental illness? Incorrect: This is a more general, or board, level of analysis so it would not be the best answer. B. Which brain structures are associated with paranoid schizophrenia? Correct: This level of analysis explores smaller and smaller units of behavior; it is a description of specific influences on behavior. C. Are food additives responsible for the occurrence of certain types of mental illness? D. Are there differences in the prevalence of mental illness in different countries? Answer: b. Which brain structures are associated with paranoid schizophrenia? 1 . 1-14.

Imagine that you are a research psychologist. In your attempt to describe behavior, it is of utmost importance that you a. Use a broad level of analysis. B. Use a narrow level of analysis. C. Elect the facts as they exist. Correct: It is important to avoid letting biases, prejudices, or expectations influence collection of data. Description must be based on objective collection of data, rather than subjective points of view. D. Collect only those facts that are consistent with your expectations. Incorrect: Data must be gathered objectively, without being influenced by one’s individual expectations.

Page Ref: 4 Answer: c. Collect the facts as they exist. 1 . 1-15. A major way in which the psychologist’s goal of explanation differs from the psychologist’s goal of description is that explanations . Are objective. Incorrect: Description can be based on objective observation, but explanation must go beyond what can be seen. B. Are based on data. C. Use a lower level of analysis. D. Deliberately go beyond what can be observed. Correct: Psychologists strive to describe behavior objectively by collecting facts as they exist. Explanations go beyond that to look for patterns in behavior and mental processes.

Explanations demonstrate that behavior is influenced in most cases by a combination of factors, some of which can be directly observed and some of which cannot. Difficulty: 3 Answer: d. Deliberately go beyond what can be observed. 1 . 1-16. In the context of the goal of explanation, the concept of “informed imagination” most closely refers to the a. Widest level of analysis. B. Researcher’s use of objective methods. C. Creativity in synthesizing what is known and not yet known. D. Discovery of cause- effect relationships by systematic experimentation. Answer: c. Creativity in synthesizing what is known and not yet known. 1 . 1-17.

Different explanations of behavior are usually Judged by how a. Consistent they are with the beliefs of the researcher. Incorrect: Sometimes the best explanations are at odds with a researcher’s beliefs. This is not the best answer to this question. B. Well they combine situational and environmental variables. C. Well they can make accurate and comprehensive predictions. Correct: If explanations of behavior are based on research and creative synthesis of information, it is likely that we can say that the behavior will happen in a particular way in the future; if this is the case, prediction has been accurate and comprehensive.