L12A4 -somatic vs. sex cell mutations

somatic cell
Basically, all the cells in the body except those involved with reproduction.
sex cell
Gametes- sperm and egg cells. Made by meiosis with ½ the regular number of chromosomes in them.
point mutation
Gene mutation involving changes in one or a few nucleotides.
mutagen
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
carcinogen
A mutagen that causes cancer
sickle cell anemia
A human genetic disease of red blood cells caused by the substitution of a single amino acid in the hemoglobin protein; it is the most common inherited disease among African Americans.
frameshift mutations
mutation that shifts the “reading” frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
chromosomal mutation
A change in the chromosome structure, resulting in new gene combinations.
reciprocal translocation
Usually a balanced mutation if no genetic material lost Just switch one part of one chromosome for another on another- fair trade
chromosomal deletion
loss of a portion of a chromosome, can be a huge problem if key genes are involved
chromosomal duplication
the insertion of a repeated piece of the chromosome
inversion mutation
Mutation in which a chromosome piece reattaches to original chromosome but in reverse orientation
nondisjunction
An error in meiosis or mitosis, in which both members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or both sister chromatids fail to move apart properly.
polyploidy
Condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
somatic mutation
A mutation that occurs in the body cells. Cannot be inherited.
gamete mutation
mutation that can affect future generations
protein synthesis
Forming proteins based on information in DNA and carried out by RNA