Psych Test 2 (Chapter 7)

weed out irrelevant information
One of the most important skills to have in jobs that require quick decision making is the ability to
earned through practice
Confidence in the ability to make good decisions on the job is
use simulations that make you feel like you are in that situation
One effective way to practice the skill of quick decision making in stressful situations is to
tend to make better, more thoughtful decisions
People who feel accountable for the decisions they are making
automatic response; logical and systematic reasoning
The two types of problem solving systems we have are _______ and ________
insight
Abby’s new puppy cries each night when left in her crate. When Abby picks up the puppy and holds her to her chest, the puppy stops crying and falls asleep. However, after she puts the puppy back in the crate, the crying begins again. After a few nights, Abby suddenly realizes that her heartbeat is helping the dog fall asleep. She places a ticking clock next to the crate, and the puppy goes right to sleep at night. Abby’s realization is an example of
visual cortex
PET scans show areas of the _____ being activated during the process of forming an image
what a person knows about a particular type of object does
Research suggests that _____ affect the person’s prototype for that category.
script
William’s alarm clock went off, and he knew what he had to do. In waking up and getting ready for class in the morning, William would most likely follow a(n)
fuzzy natural concept
Whether a whale is a fish or a mammal is an example of a
stereotypes
The representativeness heuristic can be used to create and sustain
subgoals
Writing a term paper may be best approached by using
culture
An important factor in the formation of prototypes is
images and words
When people think, they often have _____ in their minds.
strategies to stimulate divergent thinking
Brainstorming, keeping a journal, and subject mapping are all
mental age
Keneisha is only 11 years old, but she can answer questions that most 15 year olds can answer. Fifteen is Keneisha’s
be reliable
A test can fail in validity and still
analytical
According to Sternberg’s theory, _____ intelligence is measured in academic achievement tests.
s factor
Terry exhibits extraordinary musical ability. According to Spearman, this is an example of _____ intelligence.
validity
If a test measures what it is supposed to measure, that test has
emotional
_____ intelligence includes the ability to be self-motivated, to understand what others feel, and to be socially skilled.
emotional intelligence
Samantha does really well with managing her own emotions, as well as recognizing and understanding the emotions of others around her. It could be said that Samantha has a high level of
practical
Sternberg’s three types of intelligence are analytical, creative, and
fragile x syndrome
_____, which is more frequent in males, is caused by a genetic defect that leads to deficiency in a protein needed for brain development.
syntax
“Michael painted the picture” and “the picture was painted by Michael” have the same semantic meaning but different
communicate with one another; represent their own internal mental activity
Language allows people to _____ and _____.
intonation
In some languages, changing the _____ of a spoken word can change its entire meaning.
their language acquisition device
According to Noam Chomsky, humans have an innate ability to understand and produce language through
???
Derrick was given a test where he had to identify morphemes. In one particular case, he was asked to identify the number of morphemes in the word rescuer. If Derrick answered correctly, he was able to identify _____ morpheme(s).
pragmatics
Three-year-old Jamal is learning how to wait his turn to talk during circle time in preschool. Jamal is learning the _____ of language.
thinking (cognition)
mental activity for organizing, understanding, and communicating
mental images
picture-like representations in the mind that stand for objects and events
concepts
ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events, or activities
formal concepts
concepts with specific rules for inclusion/agreed upon definition
ex: planet
natural concepts
“fuzzy,” concepts people form not as a result of a strict set of rules but rather as the result of experiences with these concepts in the real world
ex: bobsleds and rafts as vehicles
prototype
most common response/basic example of a concept
can be different for different cultures
ex: fruit–>apple
problem solving
process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways
restructuring aids solutions (5 sets of rings), work backwards, break into subgoals
decision making
process of cognition that involves identifying, evaluating, and choosing among several alternatives
trial and error (mechanical solution)
problem-solving method in which one possible solution after another is trued until a successful one is found
ex: getting into your house
algorithms
very specific, “fool-proof,” step-by-step procedures for solving certain types of problems
ex: math formulas, recipes
heuristic
“rule of thumb,” an educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem
doesn’t always work, mental shortcut
ex: finding books in a library
representativeness heuristic
assumption that any object (or person) sharing characteristics with the members of a particular category is also a member of that category
ex: all people with dark skin are African American
availability heuristic
estimating the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to recall relevant information from memory or how easy it is for us to think of relevant examples
ex: “in most industrialized countries, are there more librarians or farmers?”
functional fixedness
a block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects only in terms of their typical functions
ex: chair used for sitting
mental set
rely on a strategy for problem solving that has worked for us in the past
ex: 9 dot exercise
break it by thinking creatively/divergently
confirmation bias
block to problem solving, only searching for evidence that confirms your own belief
ex: believers in ESP will look for evidence that supports its existence
creativity
the process of solving problems by combining new ideas or behavior in new ways
can solve problem solving blocks
convergent thinking
type of thinking in which a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all kinds of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer, using previous knowledge and logic
divergent thinking
type of thinking in which a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point
intelligence
the ability to learn from one’s experiences, acquire knowledge, and adapt
g factor
one ability of intelligence in Spearman’s theory of intelligence
the ability to reason and solve problems, or general intelligence
tested with IQ test
s factor
second ability of intelligence in Spearman’s theory of intelligence
the ability to excel in certain areas, or specific intelligence
ex:task-specific abilities such as music, business, art
triarchic theory of intelligence
Sternberg’s theory that there are three kinds of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical
analytical intelligence
the ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving
ex: traditional intelligence like success in school, mathematical abilities, verbal skills (tested w IQ test)
creative intelligence
the ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems
ex: people who are good with their hands, compose music, artists
practical intelligence
“street smarts,” the ability to use information to get along in life and become successful
ex: fixing cars
Binet and Simon
developed the first intelligence test
decided the key element to be tested was a child’s mental age
mental age
the average age at which children could successfully answer a particular level of questions
Lewis Terman
Stanford-Binet test
IQ test= (mental age/chronological age) x 100
IQ tests more applicable to children
intelligence quotient (IQ)
a number representing a measure of intelligence using the formula
David Wechsler
IQ tests for specific age groups (age-appropriate, culture-free, valid and rational)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
reliability
the tendency of a test to produce the same scores again and again each time it is given to the same people
validity
the degree to which a test actually measures what it is supposed to measure
deviation IQ scores
a type of intelligence measure that assumes that IQ is normally distributed around a mean of 100 with a standard deviation of about 15
(higher IQ= the ability to delay gratification)
(negative correlation between IQ score and juvenile crime)
intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder)
condition in which a person’s behavioral and cognitive skills exist at an earlier developmental stage than the skills of others who are the same chronological age; may also be referred to as developmentally delayed, condition was formerly known as mental retardation (these people fall on the low end of the intelligence scale)
gifted
“geniuses,” IQ 140-145, the 2% of the population falling on the upper end of the normal curve possessing an IQ of 130 or above
emotional intelligence
the awareness of and ability to manage one’s own emotions to facilitate thinking and attain goals, as well as the ability to understand emotions in others
heritability
degree to which the changes in some trait within a population can be considered to be due to genetic influences; the extent individual genetic differences affect individual differences in observed behavior; in IQ, proportion of change in IQ within a population that is caused by hereditary factors
intelligence at 50%
stereotype threat
condition in which being made aware of a negative performance stereotype interferes with the performance of someone that considers himself or herself a part of that group
language
a system for combining symbols (such as words) so that an unlimited number of meaningful statements can be made for the purpose of communicating with others
grammar
the system of rules governing the structure and use of a language
phonemes
the basic units of sound in language
morphemes
the smallest units of meaning within a language
syntax
the system of rules for combining words and phrases to form grammatically correct sentences
semantics
the rules for determining the meaning of words and sentences
pragmatics
aspects of language involving the practical ways of communicating with others, or the social “niceties” of language
linguistic relativity hypothesis
the theory that thought processes and concepts are controlled by language
cognitive universalism
theory that concepts are universal and influence the development of language
nature vs. nurture
nature=genetics
raising children in different environments increases the chances of a differing IQ
parieto-frontal integration theory (PFIT)
regions in the prefrontal cortex and parietal lobe that play the largest role in intelligence
amount of gray matter in brain, faster reaction times, and high speed of processing/low rate of decay mean you are a more intelligent person
cognitive universalism and Piaget
theory stating CONCEPTS precede language
studied children, “schemas”
ex: experiment where children where shown pictures of bats, flamingos, and a crow and only one group of children was told the crow was a bird
linguistic relativity hypothesis and Vygotsky
theory arguing word formed concepts, the language we use influences our thoughts
ex: sexism brought about by using terms like fireMAN, policeMAN, co-ed (female college student), by restricting language we restrict thought (“friendly-fire”)