Psychology 101 – Chapter 2 practice questions

1. A single cubic centimeter of the human brain consists of well over _____ nerve cells.
A. 10 million
B. 50 million
C. 1 billion
D. 100 billion
D
2. The brain’s ability to coordinate information from all five senses best reflects which of the following characteristics of the nervous system?
A. Complexity
B. Integration
C. Adaptability
D. Electrochemical transmission
B
3. The term plasticity refers to the____.
A. flexibility of the endocrine system
B. brain’s special capacity for modification and change
C. natural tendency to engage in a fight or flight response
D. ability of people to change habits over time
B
4. Plasticity best reflects which of the following characteristics of the nervous system?
A. Complexity
B. Integration
C. Adaptability
D. Electrochemical transmission
C
5. You are listening to a lecture. Then the bell rings in the hallway. In order to hear this stimulus, ______ neurons must carry electrochemical messages from your ears to your brain.
A. indigent
B. afferent
C. efferent
D. indifferent
B
6. The lecture you were listening to is over. The bell that rang in the hall signaled the end of class. You get up out of your seat, pick up your things, and walk out the classroom door.
Which kind of nerves sent the signals from your brain to your muscles to initiate your physical movements?
A. Afferent
B. Efferent
C. Hormones
D. Indifferent
B
7. Information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles is sent through __________, thus enabling the body to move.
A. afferent nerves
B. efferent nerves
C. hormones
D. interpathway nerves
B
8. Your brain has instructed your body muscles to move so that you avoid burning your hand on a hot stove. Which type of nerves carried the information from your brain to your muscles so that you could avoid getting burned?
A. Afferent nerves
B. Efferent nerves
C. Glial nerves
D. Parasympathetic nerves
B
9. The brain and spinal cord make up the _____.
A. peripheral nervous system
B. central nervous system
C. autonomic nervous system
D. somatic nervous system
B
10. _____ nerves carry information to the brain and spinal cord. ______ nerves carry information from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body.
A. Afferent / Efferent
B. Efferent / Afferent
C. Glial cells / Afferent
D. Efferent / Glial cells
A
11. The ______ nervous system connects the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body.
A. central
B. peripheral
C. somatic
D. autonomic
B
12. The somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system are components of the ____.
A. somatosensory area
B. central nervous system
C. limbic system
D. peripheral nervous system
D
13. The sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system are components of the _____.
A. central nervous system
B. autonomic nervous system
C. somatic nervous system
D. endocrine system
B
14. The ______ nervous system mobilizes the body’s resources and prepares it for action (i.e., the fight or flight response).
A. central
B. somatic
C. sympathetic
D. parasympathetic
C
15. The parasympathetic nervous system is part of the _____ nervous system.
A. central
B. somatic
C. autonomic
D. sympathetic
C
16. You are walking to school when you encounter a strange barking dog. You tense up and contemplate whether you should run away. Which nervous system is responsible for this “fight or flight” reaction?
A. Somatic
B. Sympathetic
C. Parasympathetic
D. Efferent
B
17. Which division of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for producing physiological symptoms (such as increased heart rate and butterflies in the stomach) under conditions of stress?
A. Somatic
B. Parasympathetic
C. Sympathetic
D. Efferent
C
18. After finishing a psychology test, you try to relax by engaging in some meditation techniques. Doing these exercises should increase the response of the ________ nervous system, which results in a slower heart and respiration rate and less muscular tension.
A. somatic
B. central
C. parasympathetic
D. sympathetic
C
19. Essential body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and digestion are under the control of the _____.
A. somatic nervous system
B. cerebral cortex
C. interneuron system
D. autonomic nervous system
D
20. Just before you went on a job interview your heart was pounding like crazy. You experienced a shortness of breath and felt sick to your stomach. These symptoms were most likely produced by your ________ nervous system.
A. central
B. somatic
C. parasympathetic
D. sympathetic
D
21. Corticosteroids are _____.
A. stress hormones
B. sex hormones
C. neurotransmitters that regulate mood
D. neurotransmitters that regulate memory
A
22. Dendrites are ____.
A. the part of the neuron that is responsible for sending information away from the cell body toward other cells
B. the branch-like part of the neuron that is responsible for receiving information from other neurons
C. located inside the cell body
D. the layer of fat cells that encase and insulate the neuron
B
23. Axons are ____.
A. the part of the neuron that is responsible for sending or carrying information away from the cell body toward other cells
B. the branch-like part of the neuron that is responsible for receiving information from other neurons
C. located inside the cell body
D. the layer of fat cells that encase and insulate the neuron
A
24. The nucleus of a neuron is located in the ____.
A. axon hillock
B. terminal stub
C. cell body
D. synapse
C
25. The cell body contains the ______, which directs the manufacture of substances that a neuron needs for growth and maintenance.
A. glial cells
B. nucleus
C. axon
D. dendrite
B
26. ____ is a layer of fat cells that insulates most axons and speeds up the transmission of nerve impulses.
A. A dendrite
B. The myelin sheath
C. Plasticity
D. Acetylcholine
B
27. _____ allows neurons to speed up the transmission of nerve impulses.
A. Resting potential
B. Having more than one cell body
C. The myelin sheath
D. Acetylcholine
C
28. When a neuron is at its resting state, what is the status of the charges on each side of the cell membrane?
A. There is a negative charge on the outside of the cell membrane, and a positive charge on the inside.
B. There is a negative charge on the inside of the cell membrane and a positive charge on the outside.
C. There is a negative charge on both the outside and the inside of the cell membrane.
D. There is a positive charge on both the outside and the inside of the cell membrane.
B
29. Resting potential is the ______.
A. amount of time a signal travels through the central nervous system
B. amount of time a neuron must “rest” in between firing episodes
C. stable, positive charge of an inactive neuron
D. stable, negative charge of an inactive neuron
D
30. According to the all-or-nothing principle, _____.
A. if all the neurons in a network are not integrated, the “message” carried by the neurons will be lost
B. the amount of time a neuron must “rest” in between firing episodes is stable
C. once the electrical impulse reaches a certain level of intensity (its threshold), it fires and moves all the way down the axon without losing any intensity
D. as a person ages, his or her neurological system slows down and the intensity of neural impulses decreases significantly
C
31. Another term that describes the “firing” of neurons is _____.
A. resting potential
B. action potential
C. graded potential
D. polarized potential
B
32. ____ are chemical substances that carry information across the synaptic gap to the next neuron.
A. Neurotransmitters
B. Axons
C. Synapses
D. Dendrites
A
33. A _____ is a tiny space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another neuron.
A. glial cell
B. reticular formation
C. synapse
D. basal ganglia
C
34. Your relative is experiencing memory loss related to Alzheimer disease. Research suggests that there may be insufficient production of the neurotransmitter _______ in this individual’s brain.
A. serotonin
B. gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)
C. acetylcholine
D. dopamine
C
35. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in ______.
A. motor function, learning, and memory
B. sexual function
C. mood regulation
D. All of these
A
36. _____ inhibits the firing of neurons in the central nervous system, but it excites the heart muscle, intestines, and urogenital tract.
A. Serotonin
B. Dopamine
C. Norepinephrine
D. GABA
C
37. Depression is associated with low levels of what neurotransmitter?
A. Acetylcholine
B. Serotonin
C. Dopamine
D. Oxytocin
B
38. _____ are natural opiates that shield the body from pain and elevate feelings of pleasure.
A. Horomones
B. Endorphins
C. Acetylcholine
D. Chromosomes
B
39. Which of the following neurotransmitters plays an important role in the experience of love and social bonding?
A. Oxytocin
B. Acetycholine
C. GABA
D. Norepinephrine
A
40. Which of the following neurotransmitters play in important role in the regulation of sleep, mood, attention, and learning?
A. GABA and oxytocin
B. Dopamine and serotonin
C. Acetycholine and GABA
D. Acetycholine and oxytocin
B
41. An ____ is a drug that mimics or increases a neurotransmitter’s effects. An ____ is a drug that blocks a neurotransmitter’s effect.
A. agonist / antagonist
B. antagonist / agonist
C. axon / endorphin
D. endorphin / axon
A
42. The antidepressant drug Prozac works by increasing brain levels of serotonin. This means that Prozac is considered _____.
A. an agonist
B. an antagonist
C. a hormone stimulant
D. All of these
A
43. Michael has schizophrenia. His psychiatrist prescribed a new drug that blocks or interferes with the activity of dopamine. Michael’s doctor is using ______ to treat his disorder.
A. an agonist
B. an antagonist
C. brain lesioning
D. a lobotomy
B
44. Neuroscientists who surgically remove, destroy, or eliminate the brain tissue of laboratory animals are using which of the following techniques for studying the brain?
A. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
B. Positron emission tomography (PET)
C. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
D. Brain lesioning
D
45. Dr. Becker is interested in identifying the pathways of connectivity in the brain and nervous system. Which of the following techniques will Dr. Becker most likely use in his research?
A. Brain lesioning
B. Staining
C. Positron emission tomography (PET)
D. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
B
46. Electrical activity in the brain can be captured by placing multiple electrodes on the scalp and then measuring the underlying electrical activity. This method of studying the brain’s activity is called a(n)_____.
A. electroencephalogram (EEG)
B. positron emission tomography (PET)
C. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
D. functional MRI (fMRI)
A
47. Dr. Stern is a neuroscientist who is collecting data for a new research study. He uses techniques for monitoring the amount of glucose in various areas of the brain. Which of the following methods is Dr. Stern using in this study?
A. Brain lesioning
B. Staining
C. Positron emission tomography (PET)
D. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
C
48. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique that _____.
A. measures the rate at which brain cells use glucose
B. constructs a three-dimensional image from X rays
C. examines the effects of lesions in brain tissue
D. involves creating a magnetic field around a person’s body and using radio waves to construct images of a person’s tissues and biochemical activities
D
49. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique that _____.
A. allows scientists to see what is happening in the brain while it is working
B. relies on monitoring changes in blood oxygen that occur in association with brain activity
C. generates very clear pictures of the brain’s interior
D. All of these
D
50. If a person’s cerebellum were damaged in an accident, you would expect the person to have a problem with _____.
A. breathing and heart rate
B. seeing and hearing
C. talking and understanding
D. balance and muscle coordination
D
51. Which part of the nervous system regulates breathing?
A. The hypothalamus
B. Wernicke’s area
C. The medulla
D. The forebrain
C
52. The medulla, cerebellum, and pons are parts of the _____.
A. hindbrain
B. midbrain
C. forebrain
D. corpus callosum
A
53. The reticular formation is primarily responsible for _____.
A. controlling breathing and regulating reflexes to maintain an upright posture
B. stereotyped patterns such as walking, sleeping, or turning to attend to a sudden noise
C. control and coordination of balance, hearing, and parasympathetic function
D. motor coordination and the integration of complex muscle movements
B
54. Discrimination of objects that are necessary for survival (such as appropriate food) as well as emotional awareness and expression involves the _____.
A. hippocampus
B. occipital lobe
C. medulla
D. amygdala
D
55. Steven was in a serious automobile accident that caused a severe injury to his hippocampus. What type of deficiency will Steven likely experience as a result of this brain damage?
A. He will probably be unable to speak.
B. He will probably be unable to comprehend language.
C. He will probably have difficulties with memory formation.
D. He will probably be paralyzed.
C
56. The _____ is a small forebrain structure that monitors pleasurable activities (e.g. eating, drinking, and sex), emotion, stress, and reward.
A. hypothalamus
B. neocortex
C. corpus callosum
D. medulla
A
57. One of the pleasure centers of the brain is found in the _____.
A. hypothalamus
B. corpus callosum
C. hippocampus
D. thalamus
A
58. Body temperature, emotional states, and coping with stress are functions controlled by the _____.
A. corpus callosum
B. hippocampus
C. hypothalamus
D. amygdala
C
59. The most complex mental functions, such as thinking and planning, take place in the _____.
A. corpus callosum
B. cerebral cortex
C. cerebellum
D. amygdala
B
60. Sonal had a stroke. Doctors told her she sustained substantial damage to the occipital lobes. What type of deficiencies will Sonal likely experience as a result of this brain damage?
A. She may be blind or unable to see clearly.
B. She will probably be unable to comprehend language.
C. She will probably have difficulties with memory function.
D. She will probably suffer from impaired cognitive functioning (planning, reasoning, and self-control will be negatively impacted).
A
61. The ____ are involved in personality, intelligence, and the control of voluntary muscles.
A. temporal lobes
B. frontal lobes
C. occipital lobes
D. parietal lobes
B
62. The three-foot-spike that damaged Phineas Gage’s frontal lobe resulted in _____.
A. hearing loss
B. reduced ability to interpret visual information
C. reduction in immunity to common diseases
D. changes in personality
D
63. The _____ is the part of the cerebral cortex that controls voluntary muscle movement.
A. motor cortex
B. sensory cortex
C. limbic system
D. temporal lobe
A
64. The somatosensory cortex processes information about _____.
A. planning and decision making
B. bodily sensations
C. facial expressions
D. voluntary body movement
B
65. Which of the following regions of the brain is involved in spatial skills, attention, and motor control?
A. The hypothalamus
B. The hippocampus
C. The parietal lobes
D. The amygdala
C
66. The association cortex _____.
A. integrates sensory input and motor output
B. makes up 75 percent of the cerebral cortex
C. is the region of the brain where the highest intellectual functions such as thinking and problem solving occur
D. All of these
D
67. The corpus callosum _____.
A. is the large bundle of axons that connects the brain’s two hemispheres and relays information between the two sides
B. is the region of the brain that is primarily responsible for managing our emotions
C. is the region of the brain that is primarily responsible for managing our thinking, reasoning, and logic skills
D. plays an important role in the production of speech
A
68. _____ plays an important role in the production of speech, whereas _____ plays an important role in the comprehension of language.
A. Wernicke’s area / Broca’s area
B. Broca’s area / Wernicke’s area
C. The occipital lobe / the hippocampus
D. The hippocampus / the occipital lobe
B
69. Katy was in a car accident and sustained serious brain damage. Since the accident Katy can speak only one word. This is an example of _____.
A. amnesia
B. aphasia
C. multiple sclerosis
D. epilepsy
B
70. Roberto has a sever case of epilepsy. His doctor surgically severed his corpus callosum. Roberto’s condition is referred to as _____.
A. Alzheimer disease
B. aphasia
C. a split brain
D. multiple sclerosis
C
71. Neurosurgeons can reduce the unbearable seizures some epileptics experience by severing the _____.
A. hypothalamus
B. cerebellum
C. amygdala
D. corpus callosum
D
72. The left hemisphere of the brain plays an important role in managing or regulating _____.
A. speech and grammar
B. spatial perception
C. visual recognition
D. movement in the left side of the body
A
73. The process of facial recognition is governed primarily by ______.
A. the left hemisphere of the brain
B. the right hemisphere of the brain
C. the peripheral nervous system
D. the endocrine system
B
74. The endocrine system _____.
A. consists of the brain and the spinal cord
B. connects the brain and the spinal cord to the rest of the body
C. consists of glands that regulate the activities of certain organs by releasing hormones into the bloodstream
D. communicates through the release of neurotransmitters
C
75. The chemical messengers produced by the endocrine glands are known as _____.
A. neurotransmitters
B. hormones
C. myelin sheath
D. stem cells
B
76. The _____ is sometimes referred to as the “master gland” because it controls growth and it releases the hormones that regulate other glands in the endocrine system.
A. pineal gland
B. adrenal gland
C. pituitary gland
D. thymus gland
C
77. Ellie has recently experienced irregular mood swings. Her energy level has decreased and she seems to have greater difficulty coping with stress. Based on her symptoms, it seems as though Ellie may have problems with her ______ glands.
A. pituitary
B. pineal
C. adrenal
D. thymus
C
78. _____ glands help regulate mood, energy, and the ability to cope with stress.
A. Pituitary
B. Adrenal
C. Pancreas
D. Gonad
B
79. ______are secreted by the adrenal glands.
A. Epinephrine and norepinephrine
B. Estrogen and testosterone
C. Estrogen and epinephrine
D. Acetylcholine and testosterone
A
80. Which of the following glands plays an important role in insulin production, metabolism, and body weight?
A. The testes and ovaries
B. The adrenal glands
C. The pituitary gland
D. The pancreas
D
81. When the axons of healthy neurons adjacent to damaged cells grow new branches, _____ has occurred.
A. collateral sprouting
B. substitution of function
C. neurogenesis
D. synaptic pruning
A
82. When Charlie was three years old, he fell off the slide at the playground and damaged the left hemisphere of his brain. Despite this injury, as Charlie grew older he still retained some of his language abilities because the right hemisphere of his brain took control over the language function. Which of the following mechanisms of brain damage repair is apparent in this example?
A. Collateral sprouting
B. Substitution of function
C. Neurogenesis
D. Lobotomy
B
83. The term ______ refers to a process by which new neurons are generated.
A. collateral sprouting
B. substitution of function
C. neurogenesis
D. lobotomy
C
84. The human brain shows the most plasticity during which developmental lifespan period?
A. Early childhood
B. Early adulthood
C. Middle adulthood
D. Late adulthood
B
85. _____ is a term used to describe the influences of multiple genes on behavior.
A. The all or none principle
B. Polygenic inheritance
C. Phenotype
D. Genotype
B
86. Which of the following methods do researchers use to study genetics?
A. Molecular genetics
B. Selective breeding
C. Behavior genetics
D. All of these
D
87. The Human Genome Project studies genetics and behavior through the use of _____.
A. molecular genetics
B. selective breeding
C. behavior genetics
D. twin studies
A
88. Dr. Cardinale is interested in the effects of heredity and environment on intelligence. She compares the similarity of IQ scores of identical twins to the similarity of IQ scores of fraternal twins. Dr. Cardinale is conducting a ______ study.
A. human genome
B. molecular genetics
C. behavior genetics
D. selective breeding
C
89. Phenotypes are _____.
A. reflected in a person’s observable characteristics (e.g., hair color or eye color)
B. influenced by genotypes
C. influenced by environmental factors
D. All of these
D
90. Molly’s natural hair color is brown but she has had it dyed blonde. Molly changed her _________.
A. phenotype
B. genotype
C. chromosomes
D. genetic heritage
A