Disease and nutrition flash card

A physical anthropologist would focus on which of the following to learn more about humans?
disease and nutrition
A scientific theory is nothing more than a guess.
false
For your physical anthropology research project, you report that you measured the length of 150 gorilla thighbones, and you suggest that the two groups you found represent different sexes. What problem might your professor have with this report?
Your report does not attempt to test a hypothesis.
How can physical anthropologists understand human biological variation?
They can examine how genes, health, and lifestyle all work together to impact human variation.
Humankind is still evolving, but recent genetic changes are often less interesting to physical anthropologists than the striking evolutionary changes that differentiated our hominin ancestors from apes. Which of the following is a possible reason for this?
Our species now completely depends on culture for its survival and day-to-day living.
Modern humans lost the typical primate honing canine used for food processing because of which invention?
stone tools
New research in Ethiopia in 2001 changed the way we think about human origins by demonstrating that the earliest hominins lived in
woodlands.
Physical anthropologists study only Africa, where humans evolved.
false
Physical anthropology and biological anthropology are equivalent.
true
Physical anthropology deals with all aspects of human biology, both past and present.
true
Physical anthropology is the study of human __________ and human biocultural _________.
evolution; variation
Several forensic anthropologists have dealt with the aftermath of Argentina’s “Dirty War” (1970s and 1980s), during which many people disappeared. Which of the following techniques would be appropriate for anthropologists to use in attempting to find and identify these individuals?
excavating mass graves, using archaeological techniques
The environment does not affect humans’ biological makeup.
False
The invention of this item was responsible for a change in our ancestors’ teeth.
True
The study of culture in the past based on material remains is part of which branch of anthropology?
archaeology
The style of locomotion shown here is the earliest and most profound difference between humans and other animals.
True
What are the four branches of anthropology?
cultural anthropology, physical anthropology, archaeology, and linguistic anthropology
What did researchers conclude regarding the populations that lived on St. Catherines Island?
The arrival of the Spanish resulted in harder work and poorer health of the native inhabitants.
What is the research method that involves a testable explanation of observed phenomena that can predict future outcomes and can be refuted by new information?
scientific method
Which of the following did physical anthropologists conclude about what makes us human after analyzing and comparing humans to nonhuman primates?
Although some other animals have the hyoid bone, its size and shape is quite different in humans and reflects the human ability to speak.
Which of the following is one of the six big events of human evolution?
domestication of foods
Which of the following outlines the steps of the scientific method in their proper order?
Identify a problem; state a hypothesis; collect data; test the hypothesis.
Who created the discipline of American anthropology?
Franz Boas
Your best friend’s great-uncle went missing in action during his Pacific tour of duty during World War II. Your friend wants to find out what happened to these enlisted men and women and to bring them home. What course of study would you suggest that your friend pursue in college?
forensic anthropology
Your professor researches the Turkana pastoralists of Kenya, investigating both the genetic changes that allow them to easily digest milk and the role that dairy animals have played in their history. Your professor most likely uses which of the following methods in her research?
the biocultural approach
According to Linnaean taxonomy, what is the MOST specific category and level shared by humans, gorillas, and howler monkeys?
suborder Anthropoidea
Darwin did not know about genes but believed that traits passed from parents to offspring by particles called
gemmules.
Darwin studied species of ____________ in the ____________ Islands when coming up with his ideas about evolution.
finches; Galápagos
Darwin’s ideas about evolution and Mendel’s research in genetics are combined into what we now call the idea of blending inheritance.
False
Darwin’s ideas helped stimulate research in the fields of biology, genetics, comparative anatomy, and physical anthropology.
True
In a simplified example of eye color inheritance, B stands for the allele for brown eyes and is dominant. Blue eyes are represented by the recessive allele b. A child who inherits one of each allele from her parents will have the genotype Bb and therefore have brown eyes.
True
In the evolutionary synthesis, Mendel’s theory indicates how traits are passed from one generation to the next, while mutation explains where variation originates.
False
James Hutton disagreed with biblical estimations of Earth’s age. In contrast to biblical estimates of a few thousand years, Hutton estimated that Earth was several million years old.
True
The gene for sickle cell anemia is found at a rate of 10%in West African blacks, 0% in American whites, and 5% in the descendants of West African blacks and American whites. Which force of evolution explains this pattern for the gene?
gene flow
This animal was instrumental to Linnaeus’s creation of binomial nomenclature.
False
This picture shows two variants in ___________ or physical appearance of seven characteristics of the pea plant.
phenotype
Viruses, such as ebola, evolve very quickly, and MOST of this evolution is due to mutations.
True
What are the four forces of evolution?
gene flow, genetic drift, mutation, and natural selection
What did Darwin believe was the primary cause of evolution?
natural selection
What is the only source of new genetic material?
mutation
What is the specific shape of DNA known as?
a double helix
Which of the following did Darwin draw from to come up with an idea of evolution?
taxonomy and demography
Which of the following is a tenet of Darwin’s theory of natural selection?
Populations adapt to different environments over time.
Which researcher laid the groundwork for later taxonomy by encouraging careful attention to detail, including consideration of plants’ and animals’ many attributes?
John Ray
Which scientist is known for developing a system of taxonomy, including a method of giving each organism two names, such as Homo sapiens for humans?
Carolus Linneaus
Which scientist is known for writing about limitations of the earth’s food supply and its effect on population size?
Thomas Malthus
Which two scientists proposed uniformitarianism, an important idea in geology?
Hutton and Lyell
While home for winter break, you start telling your grandmother about your physical anthropology class. She once heard about a man who became a bodybuilder and then produced muscular children, and she asks you to explain how this could happen. What correct information could you give her?
This is an example of Lamarckism, which has some kernels of truth about evolution but is not a wholly accurate theory.
Who was the naturalist who spent five years on the HMS Beagle?
Charles Darwin
Your history professor is interested in genealogy and tells your class that, on his mother’s side, he is descended from the original Amish population, a religious and insular group of people in Pennsylvania who tended to marry within their social circle. He also notes that many members of his extended family have the condition polydactyly, an extra finger or toe. The high frequency of polydactyly in your professor’s ancestry is an example of _________________ in the Pennsylvania Amish.
genetic drift
A woman with the B blood type has a child who has the AB blood type. Which of the following genotypes must the father have in order to have an AB child with a B woman?
AA
After doing a genetic analysis on your respective _______, you and your roommate learned that you shared the same maternal ancestor 15,000 years ago in Europe.
mtDNA
After learning in physical anthropology class that a cleft chin is recessive and that dimples, a free-hanging earlobe, and tongue rolling are dominant, your friend tells you over dinner that she is certain she is adopted. What could have caused her to arrive at this conclusion?
Both of her parents have cleft chins but she does not.
During a visit to the circus, you and a friend stumble into a tent with a “freaks of nature” display. Your friend points out a photograph of a man whose left arm is protruding from his left hip rather than from his shoulder. This was likely caused by a mutation in which of the following?
homeotic genes
Human and chimpanzee DNA is roughly _________ identical.
98%
If one side of the DNA ladder includes the sequence CTAATGT, what will the complementary base configuration for this sequence be?
GATTACA
If you wanted to sequence the genome of Ötzi, the 5,300-year-old “Iceman” mummy found in the Alps in 1991, which method would you be MOST likely to use?
PCR
In RNA, _________ replaces thymine as a nucleotide base.
uracil
In protein synthesis, ___________ refers to “unzipping” the DNA, and ____________ refers to the formation of polypeptide chains.
transcription; translation
Prokaryotes have multiple cells, whereas eukaryotes have one.
False
The assertion that each parent provides one allele for any inherited trait is known as the law of segregation.
True
The human karyotype consists of ______ pairs of chromosomes.
23
The largest organelles in a cell are the mitochondria.
False
The potato and the guinea pig have more chromosomes than humans do.
True
This diagram represents one of the building blocks of DNA.
True
This figure demonstrates _______________, the inheritance of a package of genes from the same chromosome.
linkage
This is a close-up of hair, which is composed of functional proteins.
False
This picture demonstrates that E. coli is a prokaryotic bacterium.
True
This picture shows male and female ___________ in the process of fertilization.
gametes
What are blocks of genetic material that do not recombine and are passed on for generations called?
haplotypes
What comprises a nucleotide?
sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogen base
What will be the phenotype of an offspring with the chromosome pair XX?
female
Which of the following is a regulatory or functional protein?
collagen
Which of the following is a responsibility of structural proteins found in the human body?
whether your hair is straight or curly
Which of the following is made up of the somatic type of eukaryotic cells?
bone and muscle