Critical Analysis of Literature Review Reduction Technique of Water Evaporation Introduction When water evaporates from water storages It becomes a major issue that affects regions of agriculture In most lands leading to annual loss exceeding potentially to 40 percent and more of water storage. This water which Is lost leads to reduction of productivity In agriculture affecting the environment adversely.
Literature review has been developed on the same by various researchers in order to develop evaporation suppression techniques highlighting the merits and demerits of the same technique tit reference to harm to environment, safety and health concerns (Winter 2011). Critique of Literature Review Australia lost most of its water stored in the natural resources through evaporation which grew the attention on conserving evaporation (Craig et al 2007). More than 7000 gallons of water loss is a big issue. Irrigation channels also lost water raising a concern towards environment especially in North Victoria.
The water lost leads towards reduction In various activities of production as depicted by (Winter and Albrecht 2011). Various researches of substantial aspects and testing commercially he practical methods reduces the evaporation method Indicating that products currently have to be generated the prohibit the expensiveness for protecting large water storages (Craig et al 2005 and Hay et al 2009). The issue particularly rose an importance when the studies depicted Queensland as an example in the scenario.
The example was presented in the studies of Craig 2005 saying that around 80 percent water was held in large storage tanks where most of the large storages and irrigation channels ended up losing their water stores. Enactment et al 2008 and other searchers analyzed the previous material investigating the fields using them as trial approaches. However the chemically ultra thin product layer gets compromised by the monolayer getting exposed to water, quality of wind and popularization of the product In the same projected framework.
According to the researches by Solomon et al 2010 and Prime et al 201 2, It was figured that CRY-P has successfully developed a thin film of layer that will lead towards overcoming the Limitations of monolayer abilities. In order to deploy this technologically made film it becomes important to l, 2008 delivered that performance testing has to be worked upon for generating the tests in the laboratory with the help of large field trials and the small field trials in the subsequent dimensions (Hay 2010).
While some researchers such as Languid and Schaefer indulged in making the first measurement quantitatively of resisting evaporations and demonstrating Awareness temperature dependence suppressing evaporation, others such as Rideau discovered first that the best technique of water reduction is to use monolayer. Ever since these discoveries took place, attention inconsiderably has caused a research direction to develop in order to suppress water evaporation effectively especially in large water sources (Barnes 2008, Machine et al. 2007, Glottis et al 2011).
Then the research led to a direction of finding the compounds used as suppressants of evaporation that would help in the process such as fatty alcohols, cutely alcohol and stealer alcohol (1 -occidental) (Barnes 2008, Dressier 2009, Riser 2009). While there was so much attention to finding suppressants, it was found in most researches and by Barnes 2008 that in order to sake monolayer more viable, it is required that materials of superior monolayer formation are required and hence better deployment methods need to be searched for (Barnes 2008).
A number of field trials on the subjectively defined monolayer for reducing water evaporation have been done presented in the summaries of Enactment et al. 2008 and Barnes 2008. However, the trials found that wind action and wind speed on more than 10 km per hour leads towards destructing the monolayer formation reducing the ability of the monolayer to suppress evaporation. Another destructing aspect of the same is found to be the action of wave that reduces the reference of monolayer films (Healy and La Mere 2009).
In order to make the compounds of evaporation suppressants useful, the film on the surface has to have increased pressure of equilibrium on the surface along with depicting an ability to cause reduction in evaporation at the pressure (Barnes 2008). According to La Mere and Healy 2009, it was found that both the properties of 1 Hexadecimal and 1 occidental had the ability to save up to 50 percent of the water which is usually lost from the vast water areas as well as the small sources of water. Even though requirements were met what was required is to implement them in real life robbers (Winter 2011).
This was not done because widely they have not been adopted. Most researchers thought that water surface rapid loss and stability lack Is the main issue that these layers are not used. Also, there is a difficulty of relying on obtaining the suppression performance field observable especially in the conditions of laboratory (Barnes 2008). In addition, various important studies carried out in the laboratory identified and quantified the chemical properties that is needed and desires for understanding the mechanism from which reduced evaporation from monolayer can result from.
These studies were performed by various researchers such as Doe et al 2010, Barnes 2008 and La Mere 2009, Barnes, 2008. These studies were tested in the settings of laboratories providing effectiveness in the initial test. The apparatus used for the testing of these studies was Languid trough (Languid 2009). But this trough needs a determination of how it can be used for compressing and relaxing the film surface. A consideration here was made by Herzog et al, 2011 regarding the information that is required including the following: 0 Surface provides information on characteristic packaging of molecular film considerations
Pressure of equilibrium surface is another dimension regarding the pressure of surface where molecules have to be in equilibrium and have to be packed together in close networks. This is maximum surface pressuring the monolayer acceptability using the water body 0 Evaporation statistical data presentation with the help of the method of Languid Chaser method 0 Spread rate on the scale being presented with regard to examining the importance of mono layer considerations ( Herzog et al 2011) Each of these aspects were dealt through application of material and needed to be completed for covering the surfaces.
Wide implication of this technology that is the use of monolayer has to be considered from the aspect of several issues that is their impact of the health of humans and the health of animals. The monolayer used in the reduction of evaporation will be made with the help of cutely and stealer alcohol along with derivatives of fatty alcohol tessellates. These products are approved in accordance by the United States Food and Drug Administration indicating that they do not cause any toxicity to mankind Oarfish 2009).
According to Fish et al 2009 however, less studies have been done to acknowledge the effect on aquatic animals. The data available by Fist et al, nonetheless shows that toxicity levels do not harm the life under water. However a very niche proposition was made by Setter and Heroic 2010, declaring that the pathways of biodegrading of the monolayer compounds takes place rapidly by processes of aerobics and anaerobic. Other researches that is by Federal and ‘trick 2010, indicated that the observation of half lives indicates the demonstration of susceptibility of the biodegrading of compounds.
Therefore presenting the conclusive outlook that the layer will biodegrade at a rapid rate in aquatic surroundings. However, the harm that the mono layer will have is only one as declared in the researches of Sailor et al 2010, Jarvis 2009, that is on the water body temperature on which the monolayer formation takes place. In order to form a positive testing solution of chemical system and physical formation combination it was found that only some systems are controlled such as EX., EX. and EX.. These were all solvents tested to determine the effect of wind action on them.
Finally upon testing and experimenting, there are two main products in the commercial dimensions that have already been released in the arrest of Australia in the current years. These two products are Waters and Aquatint. Waters has been researched in the thesis of Morrison et al 2008 depicting that the product is solid powder on the basis of cutely and stealer alcohol consistently mixed with dispersant hydrated lime. According to the International market of Flexible Solutions there have been several experiments carried out to understand the environmental impact of the same.
But before discussing the same let us have a look into Aquatint. This is a liquid form based silicone forming a thin film n the surface of water. The formation of this film does not form a monolayer but is an application based on thick formation of firm which is 100 times thicker than the monolayer. Various results on both these products have been presented in the research of Morrison et al 2008. The results of field trials have been presented in good summaries of Enactment et al 2008 and Barnes 2008.
These trials have been used on water bodies in small pond sized individuals (Craig et al 2005). According to is lost disrupting the surface covering the water surface. According to previous searchers however, Healy and La Mere 2009 found that reducing evaporation by the use of any monolayer formation becomes difficult because the monolayer will get destructed but the preference is laid now on different equipments and compounds. The action of wave influences the performance but the two chemical compounds found do reduce the impact of the same.
Conclusion The extensive literature review presented above and the critique on the same determines that various projects have been undertaken to measure the effectiveness of technologies and understand if the problem of water evaporation can be dealt tit. If technology Is successful as determined by the researches then it help Australia in establishing the suppression of evaporation Oarfish 2009). Also, the compositions made to develop the compounds do not hamper the health conditions of individuals and animals and so making the same a better idea of water evaporation reduction.