That has its head office in Colombo, and branches that carry out training in Colombo, Candy, Gerundial and Gale. The main functions of Institute are Course Registration; maintain the students, Lecturer maintenance, Course preparation, Course management, Report creation and Decision making. The Institute handles all the functions with partial computerized system. So, the management Institute expects to extend their operation with fully computerized system. They need a effective computerized system for handle their activities. New computerized system will be prepared to solve the existing problem.
Fact finding is gathering information of the current system. The process and techniques used by systems analysts to identify or extract system problems and solution requirements from the user community. There are several ways to gather information of an organization. But by using the fact finding method we can get all the information in a well structured manner. By using this method it is very easy to gather information about the previous system and the problems occurred. So that such problems could be avoided while developing the new system. There are several fact finding techniques use to gather the acquirement.
Interview Observation Questionnaires Research and site visit Document Review with sampling Joint Requirement Planning Selection and Justification of fact finding techniques To collect the data or information for Crystal Institute, the following fact finding techniques should be used: Interview is a fact finding technique whereby the system analysts collect information from individuals through face-to-face interaction. There are two roles assumed in an interview. The system analyst is the interviewer, responsible for organizing and conducting the interview.
The system user or system wine is the interviewee, who is asked to respond to a series of questions. Conducting of interview to the Crystal Institute is the best choice for gathering information. The following advantages system analyst can get by conducting interview in Crystal Institute. Interview is the best way to get real time data by having a discussion with the respondent. It allows the interviewer to explain or help clarify questions. By this we can identify what kind of system the organizations needs. It gives the analyst an opportunity to motivate the interviewee to respond freely and openly to questions.
It’s flexible and allows the interviewer to ask more questions on the spot in different views. Crystal Institute is a vast organization and it has many branches in different location, so interviewing everyone is not simple. The interview will take more time to get the required information. The certain amount of top level, middle level and operational level users selected and will be conducted interview to those users in Crystal Institute. Sample format of interview questions for (a person is working in the company) the above scenario is attached in appendix A.
Observation will is an information gathering technique wherein the system analyst either participates in or watches a person perform activities to learn about the system. This technique is often used when the validity of data collected through other methods is in question or when the complexity of certain aspects of the system prevents a clear explanation by the end-users. Observation can also be divided into two methods: 1 . Formal observation: Informing the organization that an observation is going to be done 2. Informal observation: Doing an observation without informing the organization
Doing observation to the Crystal Institute is also the best choice for gathering information. The following advantages system analyst can get by doing observation in Crystal Institute. By doing an observation, it provided direct information about the behavior of individuals and exactly what is being done in this organization. Generates relevant and correct data. It is very helpful in validating data obtained by other methods. It verifies what people do naturally compare to what they say. Through this analyst can identify tasks that have been missed or inaccurately described by other fact finding techniques.
In Crystal Institute System analyst will use two methods (Formal and Informal) to do the observation, because through this we could collect the real information of what is actually happening inside the organization by the existing system. We could observe each department much carefully and try to understand the hard times they are having. Through this observation System analyst can find out the difficulties the employees are having using the manual system, The following observation can be made in a company: What are the activities done in each section? How the employees and students interact with the system?
How many people involving in particular process? How students and employee complaints are handled? Who are the people appointed for the activities? Questionnaires are special-purpose documents that allow the analyst to collect information and opinions from respondents. The document can be mass-produced and distributed to respondents, who can then complete the questionnaire on their own time. Questionnaires allow the analyst to collect facts from a large number of people while maintaining uniform responses. When dealing with a large audience, no other fact finding technique can tabulate the same facts as efficiently.
Questionnaires can be categorized as follows: 1 . Free formatted questionnaires: Offer the respondent grater latitude in the answer. A question is asked and the respondent will provide the answer in the space provided after the question. 2. Fixed formatted questionnaires: Contains questions that require selection of predefined answers. Multiple choice question (MAC). Rating Question Ranking question The following advantages of questionnaires ensure to select as fact finding technique for Crystal Institute. It is more objective and it’s relatively quick to gather data from a large number of individuals within some time.
The employees can complete and return the questioners at their convenience. It allows the individuals to provide real time facts By using this method the data’s can be easily quantified and analyzed. We could reach many people in a short time Response can be tabulated quickly. Questionnaires will help to system analyst the information gathering from students. This method is suitable for gathering information from wide range of people in a certain period of time. Sample of questionnaire prepared for (Employees or Students) the above scenario is attached in appendix.
Document Review with sampling This method allows the analyst to study about the current system and its processes by going through the documents they are having. It is also another easy method to gather information and study about the current system and its processes through the documents that are available locally. To accomplish this, the analyst may want to collect and review documents which include: Reports Forms Filled data gathering documents And reports that document the problem area When doing the Document Review the Sampling technique will be used.
It is the recess of collecting a sample of documents, forms and records. During the process of sampling it is important to determine the size of sample. There after we should identify various ways of selecting sample. There are two basic types. 1 . Randomization- is a sampling technique characterized as having no predetermined pattern or plan for selecting sample data. 2. Stratification- is a systematic sampling technique that attempts to reduce the variance of the estimates by spreading out the sampling. The following advantages of document review ensure to select technique for Crystal Institute.
It provides relevant and exact data’s to be gathered. Its one of the fastest way of fact finding. Also another inexpensive method of gathering data. The Crystal Institute uses to handle all their transaction details, employee details and student details everything is kept in a file gather this information originally the document review will plan The Fact finding techniques won’t be used for Crystal Institute To collect the data or information for Crystal Institute, the fool techniques will not be used: err:an per 100 of Tim Research is another important fact finding technique.
Your re’s depended) viewing Journals, periodicals, and books to obtain background technical material, and news about industry trends and develop can involve site visits, where the objective is to observe a system location. This is done in a well planed system. Research can in Reviewing Journals, periodicals, and books that contain informs task Attending professional meetings and seminars Having formal and informal discussions with other professional visitation- visit to another installation to see one of its system I When system analyst gather information for the crystal Institute selecting this fact finding method because of the following areas
Time consuming May not be directly relevant various ways Does not build involvement You will not get the desired results is It should not be done in a well planned system This is not a big project and other requirement method gave a TTY out -. He Because of this reason also system analyst will not use this etc Therefore due to the above disadvantages system analyst can not select this fact finding method. Joint Requirements Planning ARP) Joint Requirement Planning ARP) is a process where by highly structured group meetings are conducted to analyze problems and defined requirements.
JAR is a upset of more comprehensive Joint Application Development CAD) technique that encompasses the entire system development process. JAR session consists of several participants. 1 . JAR sponsor or the champion 2. JAR facilitator 3. User and the Managers 4. Scribe(s) 5. IT staff The following steps will be followed before conducting a JAR session 1 . Selecting a location for the JADE session 2. Selecting JAR participants 3. Preparing a JAR session agenda When system analyst gather information for the crystal Institute there is no use of selecting this fact finding method because of the following reasons:
Can not get really happening requirements Executive people involvement is high Requirements may differ between top level and Low level staff This is not a big project and other selected fact finding method gave adequate information. Because of this reason also system analyst will not use this technique. Therefore due to the above disadvantages system analyst will not select this fact finding method for Crystal Institute. Problem definition is the requirements gathered from system users when doing the analysis. Those are missing functionalities of the system.
The requirements gathering re done by suitable fact finding method. The requirements can be divided into two categories. 1 . Functional requirements- These are statements of services the system should provide, how the system should react to particular inputs and how the system should behave in particular situations. Typical functional requirements are; Business Rules Transaction corrections, adjustments, cancellations Administrative functions Authentication Authorization -functions user is delegated to perform Audit Tracking External Interfaces Certification Generation Reporting Generation Legal or Regulatory Conditions 2.
Non-functional requirements- These are constraints on the services or functions offered by the system. They include timing constraints, constraints on development process, standards, etc. Typical non-functional requirements are: Performance – Response Time, Throughput, Utilization, Static Volumetric Scalability 24 hours Availability Reliability Recoverability Maintainability Security Manageability Data Integrity Functional requirements of the Scenario Crystal Institute has a current partially automated system. That will not be an effective system to handle students, Lecturers and other function.
And it should not eve the centralized system to handle the all branches data. Sending the CD or floppy hold the files and reports branch to branch is happening in manual method by giving someone or post. Management of each branches are different. Activities of academic and other management are differing from other branches. So head office will take more risk and hard work to manage all the branches in same manner. Because of decentralized system these problems occur. All the function of the institute is done with partial automated system. They are maintaining the records in several files and books, the records are being duplicated any times.
Suppose if a record is written in two different ways and in two different places this can cause a major problem. Not only is that creation of report difficult when using a manual system. The chance of error occurring is high when entering data. If students want to cancel their registration they don’t have an effective way to solve that problem. Non-functional requirements of the Scenario Current system is not secure because this companies some of the records keeping with manually and those data is writing by the staffs. Who can take away or anyone can hack data.
So this system not secure in the company. Personal information about the company could be stolen by another person easily since they are having all the records in a file based system. To get the backup they have to refer many files and books therefore there are plenty of chances for the records to get damaged. Sending reports in machine readable format by floppy disk or CD is unsecured method. Someone can hack or make malfunction to those data. And time taken for the sending data is high, so they cannot continue the work as soon. The chance of error occurring in manual system is high.
If any errors occur, it is very hard to find out and solve the problem. So complexity and time consuming can occur due to this reason. Student is waiting for more hours because registration recorder was kept manually that time staff takes more time for the writing part. It takes some considerable amount of time to write the bills because they produce bills by using printed bill books. So the students should wait until they finish the calculations and issue the payment details to them. The manual file system takes a long time to search the records of the Students or Lecturer by going through each and every file.