The characterization of any pedagogic practice Essay

In the secondary level, the enrollment share ere quickly at the beginning of the asses as a response to the demand for more education in a fast growing country, demand that the public schools was not covers By 1965, 32% of the secondary school students were attending the schools due to low quality of public schools and scarcity of trained teacher SebastianГn Augusta teal (2008), In Ivory coast Government schools are seriously under-funded, lack critical resources and qualified teaching personnel, and many other necessities proper schools should have and their quality become IoW’ says DRY-born Nagy, who lived in Ivory Coast for ore than 20 years and has over 35 years’ experience in the education field. In context of Somalia Parents cite quality of the low public school as their main reason for transferring their children from public school to private schools. But this is based on their perception of quality rather than an actual measure of quality because of they have seen that there is no qualified teachers in public schools so that they prefer in private schools.

Unfortunately, unacceptably high numbers of transfers from public schools are still into private schools because of perceptions of or quality in public schools following the low grade of public school pupils for General Certificate Examination for last three years where private schools stood Top ten students. Teacher training refers to the policies and procedures designed to equip prospective teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school and wider communication to the community Public schools are State schools in Australia, Canada, Scotland, and the United States; a school funded with tax revenue and administered by a government or overstatement agency.

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Although public schools have a lower fee according to private schools but not seemed to be an important motivation for pupils who are rushing from public schools to private schools due to the lower quality of teachers than the private schools according to Omar (2013) PROBLEM OF THE STATEMENT There is tremendous decline in the academic performance of our public schools the indicators that proved that this problem is substantive problem are, unacceptably high numbers of transfers from public schools are still into private schools, low grade f public school for General Certificate Examination for last three years where private schools stood Top ten students.

If this problem continue as this current situation it may cause that the public schools are closed due to frequently transferred to private schools and then a lot of poor people who can’t afford to pay the fee of private schools become thieves, robbers and also luck of experienced teachers because of scares of training teachers. It may cause that the private schools collar the educational management. The possible causes of this problem are first the public schools in Somalia are not quipped with managerial skills. This implies that school public managers need to be trained to equip them with the relevant skills and techniques to prepare them to be effective in implementation of Somalia educational policies.

The second cause is the salary of teachers in public schools is lower than the private schools so the active teachers looking for a vacancy in the private or the managers of private will call the active teacher in order to convince to teach his schools so the active teachers will automatically go the private schools. The reasons that we have chosen this topic is in Somalia the number of the students in public schools are extremely more than the private and that students in public schools most of them are the lower class society or less-privileged so if the government of our country focus on how to change the situation public schools we sure that the Somalia community will also change and our society become developed society. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 1 . The main purpose of the study is to check the hypothesis of no significant relationship between teacher training and the high quality of public schools in Harasses Somalia. 2.

To validate existing of conceptual on teacher training and the quality of public schools based on conceptual perspective to which this study is based 3. To get new information based on the findings of the study RESEARCH OBJECTIVES General objectives: this study will correlate teacher training and quality of high public schools in Harasses Somalia. Specific objectives 1 . To decide the demographic features/profile of respondents in terms of l. Age Gender Marital status Educational background Work experience 2. To decide the quality of public schools in Harasses Somalia 3. To set if there significant relationship between teacher training and high quality of public SOHO Harasses Somalia. 4.

To set if there is a significant difference between teacher training and high quo of public schools in Harasses Somalia RESEARCH QUESTIONS This study is looking for to answer the following questions 1 . What are the demographic profile of the respondents as to A. Age? B. Gender? C. Marital status? D. Educational background? E. Work experience? 2. What is the level of teacher training in Harasses district, Somalia? 3. What is level of quality of public schools in Harasses district, Somalia? 4. Is there a Harasses Somalia? 5. Is there a significance difference between teacher training and high quality of public schools in Harasses Somalia? HYPOTHESIS 1 .

There is a significant relationship between the level teacher training and high quality of public schools in Harasses Somalia. 2. There is no significant relationship between the level of teacher training and t high quality of public schools in Harasses Somalia. SCOPE Geographical scope This study will be directed in the five districts that Harasses the capital city of Somalia contains because Harasses is the most populated place in Somalia hat the study will focus on only Harasses and its districts. Content scope This is study is going to search the level of training teachers and high quality of public schools in Harasses districts, Somalia.

Cause and problem and also the relationship between independent variables and dependent variables Theoretical perspective This study is based on theoretical on Bernstein theory of pedagogic discourse as the main theoretical framework of the study (Bernstein, 1990, 2000; Bernstein, & Solomon, 1999; Domingo et al, 1986), frame work. Time scope The time that this study will take December 24/2013 until January 1 5/2014 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The beneficiaries of this study are these Somalia government: especially ministry of education Non-governmental organizational also will benefit the findings of the study and they focus how they give more training in public school teachers.

Academic and future researchers: the people or the academic researchers who want to write something about teacher training and the high quality of public schools will benefit the findings of the study. Operational definitions Public schools are State schools in Australia, Canada, Scotland, and the United States; school funded with tax revenue and administered by a government or governmental agency. Quality according to concise oxford dictionary eleventh edition is the standard of something as measured against of other things of a similar kind. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE According in UNESCO (2006) Teacher quality OR training encompasses a range of skills, competencies and motivation.

As common sense suggests, specific training is required in order to expect quality services from a teacher or any other skilled professional. Teacher training, is the time where a person trainees to be a teacher. They often watch how teachers of the subject they want to teach for a while, and then attempt to teach that class. Teacher education is the process of providing teachers and potential teachers with the skills and knowledge necessary to teach effectively in a classroom environment. Most teacher education starts with initial training such as a degree program at a college or university, though other paths are available for a candidate to begin teacher education http://www. Weeklies. Com.

According Jacob & Leafier (2005) while most research has focused on general skills, school districts and tastes often rely on in service staff development as a way to improve student learning. This on-the-Job training seeks to instruct teachers in content as well as pedagogy. Professional development is an extremely widespread practice in U. S. Public Schools. 72 percent of teachers report having engaged in training related to the subject area of their main teaching assignment during the previous 12 months (Parsed et al. 2000). A similar fraction reports having received training on how to implement new teaching methods. Despite the widespread nature of these activities, he intensity of training is typically fairly low, with more than half of the teachers engaging in eight hours or less of training in each of these areas per year.

Unfortunately, most of the existing research on in service training suffers from the fact that the training is endogenously determined by teachers and schools. THEORETICAL REVIEW According to Ana M. teal (2005) they consider that teacher training should have a clear theoretical basis and its conceptualization and characterization should be deep and coherent and should also take into account a sociological dimension. On the axis of these principles, we decided to concentrate on Bernstein theory of pedagogic discourse as the main theoretical framework of the study (Bernstein, 1990, 2000; Bernstein, & Solomon, 1999; Domingo et al, 1986), as this theory contains a strong conceptual structure and operational concepts with a high analytical power.

If we consider Bernstein model of pedagogic discourse, teacher training is part of the mess level of that model. Training modalities can be thought of pedagogic practices and as such can be characterized in terms of the instructional and regulative contexts. In the instructional context we can consider the relation between agents (discursive rules – selection, sequence, pacing and evaluation criteria – related with the transmission-acquisition of discourse) and between discourses (interdisciplinary, interdisciplinary and researcher-teacher knowledge). In the regulative context we can consider the relation between agents (hierarchical rules) and between spaces.

The characterization of any pedagogic practice is made by using the two operational concepts of classification and framing. Classification (C) defines the degree of insulation between categories (agencies, agents, discourses) and framing (F) defines the control that the various categories have in the communicative practices. In the teacher training context, the framing refers to the control given to transmitters (researchers/teacher trainers) and acquirers (teachers), in both the regulative and the instructional contexts. Categories can be sharply separated with strong boundaries between them; this can be referred to as strong classification. When the boundary between categories is blurred, the classification is weak.

Framing is strong if, in the relation of immunization, the control is exercised by the 4 transmitter (researcher/teacher trainer) and is weak if the acquirer (teacher) has also some form of control in that relation. Classification and framing of diverse relations of the instructional and regulative contexts differ in degree, from very weak to very strong and, to a certain extent, they can vary independently. Different combinations lead to diverse forms of realization of the pedagogic code. In terms of teacher training, distinct training modalities lead to distinct coding orientations, that is, “distinct international practices originate, at the level of the object, differences in recognition and realization rules” (Domingo et al, 1986, p. 245).

For Bernstein, the acquisition of the specific coding orientation, that is the acquisition of recognition and realization rules (passive and active) for a given context, is fundamental for acquirers success in that context. However, Bernstein argues that in order that the subject produces the legitimate text in a given context, s/he should also have the socio-affective dispositions favorable to that context, that is s/he should have aspirations, motivations, values and attitudes adequate to the production. RELATED LITERATURE Despite the importance of teacher training in most school districts, there is surprisingly little evidence on the effect of teacher training on student achievement. Indeed, as Angriest & Law (2001) pointed out, there seems to have been more research on the impact of teacher training in developing countries than in developed countries.

Early research on teacher training presents a rather pessimistic view of the effectiveness of staff development for increasing student performance. In a meta- analysis of 93 studies of the effect of teacher development on student performance, Kennedy (1998) reports that only 12 studies show positive effects of staff development. Consistent with this finding, Corcoran (1995) and Little (1993) claim that typically staff development is a low intensity affair that lacks continuity and accountability. There are some notable exceptions to these findings however. Breakouts (1996), using a experimentalist research design, and Dildo (1982), examining the results of a randomized trial, find that teacher training increases student performance.

Wiley and Yon (1995) and Cohen and Hill (2000) are others who find teacher development orgasm to have at least small impacts on student performance. One recent paper that finds particularly strong effects of teacher training is Angriest and Law (2001). While this paper presents strong evidence regarding the potential effectiveness of teacher training programs, this analysis has several limitations. In addition to funding teacher training, the intervention consisted of several other components that might have increased student achievement, including the establishment of a learning center to assist failing students after school and a project o support immigrant students and their families.