Nowadays we are exposed to more than 100 different advertisements per day about different services and products, and these considered products are local and international, this is because any company needs to demonstrate their market share o it by advertising. We chose this topic because it’s one of the most important topics nowadays and advertising became an important part of our life as it is controlled by many multinational companies, these companies are European and American corporations.
So therefore, this paper discusses the meaning of international advertising and how these corporations control the world through advertising. It is also to study how the advertisers and marketers of these corporations have used effectiveness in the message and by using it strongly they are able to convey people not only to purchase their products but to also change their culture.
Regarding that people from different countries speak different languages and have different cultures, We Prove in the study how these companies succeeded in using certain advertising techniques internationally between different cultures and societies, moreover, in this paper we want to show the the purpose of international advertising and if it helps in selling products to achieve more profit, or by helping in realizing political influences and transferring indirect messages to the target audiences.
So have these corporations in the developed countries really succeeded by using international advertising to intro the developing countries? What we have also tried to prove is what kind of factors has helped them to achieve their goals without becoming barriers. However the most debatable question was to what degree were the developing countries affected by the international advertising? Literature Review Introduction International Advertising is an important process for promoting a commercial message aiming to target different audiences in different countries leading to the success of multinational corporations.
The success of the multinational corporations or (the Mac’s) is based on critical or strategic importance due to the effect of international advertising on these corporations. These multinational corporations put their strategies depending on which market they want to target to be able to convey the audience to change their behaviors or purchase their products. The owners of the largest multinational corporations are from the U. S or European countries which are called core-nations (countries having high technology and huge income) and these countries demonstrate a huge part of the market the all over the world.
The multinational corporations use market research to select the most effective message to convey target audiences as many differences were recognized in the nonuser’s responses to the strategies and the marketing efforts according to people of different countries who are affected by their cultures. Sometimes their cultures are consequences making the audience not understanding the advertising message or the advertisers can’t transfer the real image to the local consumers.
The most important thing for multinationals is the market research. In-between the global marketing topics, it is found that international advertising is the most that has reached a wide range of researches amongst the topics covering a countless number of issues. International advertising history, which has exceeded 40 years, committed to have an understanding of the differences of the results and practices of the cross cultural advertising (Garrett & Lyre, 2013).
The best example approves the importance of market research in Nigeria. In order to show the strength of the product, they made a billboard that had the picture of an elephant riding the bicycle, and it totally failed, they did their research, the ad men discovered that the comment that was given was: “We have never seen an elephant riding a bicycle. ” By debating in international advertising, it would be easily understood that you loud be discussing two different issues by depending on which group out of two you are addressing.
For many of the advertising or the marketing practitioners and also the academic circles which are concerned about communications problems or business practices, see that debating about international advertising is for the possibility of the products which are marketed globally and the connected problems of the communication about them throughout advertising messages which have been designed for effectiveness as much as possible through a wide array of cultural variation (Frazer, 1989).
Another group including mostly scholars and critics from the Marxist traditions, which also includes several UNESCO task forces and commissions, happens to be debating in international advertising about certain issues which are related to the cultural imperialism, especially in recreating consumer cultures to become westernizes in countries outside Western Europe and the US in the means of advertising such as Egypt and other developing countries (Frazer, 1989). Marketers have worked on different appeals and cultural values in international advertising.
Although most of the pre done studies have been focusing on a single ultra dimension of value within the situation of domestic marketing, and they have not been exploring or comparing the resulted effects from using different cultural values and the roles of the related variables such as the positioning of a product which comes from a foreign culture or a local culture, this could possibly lead to affecting the consumer’s response to the culturally incongruent advertising.
The results end up revealing the momentous moderating effects due to the related variables and the consumer’s processing complexity for the culturally incongruent advertising (Cut, Yang, Wang & Lie, 2012). Cue et al. (2012) suggested that when the multinational corporations promote their products, marketers should implement messages that are culturally congruent with other countries; this is due to the messages, which originate from some cultures such as sex appeals and individualism that can end up being ineffective or offensive in other countries according to their own cultures.
History The U. S and the European countries were the first people who discovered the importance of national advertising for the multinational corporation’s number since 1969, causing them to become tripled in the 14 richest countries in the world (Kettle, 003). It has also been noted by others that the growing attention of the academic institutions have placed on international issues in the curricula of the business schools (Garrett & Lyre, 2013). However, according to Dunn (1999) reported on the early days the international advertising became as an education in the U.
S. As it was hoped that this move would motivates more of advertising professors to include concentration on the international tribulations in their courses. Moreover, “The International Advertising Association (formerly the Export Advertising Association) as interested in helping to promote international advertising in colleges and universities”. It has been approved how International advertising has a great history that it gets past many stages to reach for these standards of advertising.
These standards regard nowadays the guideline for international advertising, that during the sass’s the adaptation of the promotional theme versus the standardization was the main issue. Roast in 1963, Lender in 1965, and Feat in 1967 argued the possibility of the global theme standardization. Although others had an opposite point of view, which ere Furious in 1962, Lemonade in 1964, Aryans in 1969, then Green, Cunningham & Cunningham in 1975 who thought the individual methods to the markets, will have more effectiveness (Hill & James, 1989).
A more recent version of the standardized-adapted debate was updated and resurfaced. Then after it had been proved by recent studies, it was found that adverse managerial attitudes were near the direct change of the advertising messages amongst the world markets. Evidence was then found for the consolidation of the national identities within the European markets, which recommended diminishing the opportunities for message standardization. Later on, Sorenson and Wightman found more than 70 percent of the standardization of the basic messages from American multinationals in 1975 in Europe.
More recent evidence were then found, Bootee in 1982/1983 claimed that many promotions are to be standardized but within Europe, also stating that slight thematic differences are still needed for each country (Hill & James, 1989). Aryans, Pebbles and Vernon used the Goodyear tire company for their case model in 1978, introducing the idea of discussed adaptation of the multinational advertising. By using this method NC head offices had circulated and generated initial aiming ideas and materials to the subsidiaries. The subsidiaries then had reviewed these ideas and altered them as it was necessary to meet the market and the consumer needs.
Resolving the differences were an important issue done by utilizing the meeting and the dialogs between the head office executives and the subsidiary (Hill & James, 1989). During Slough’s landmark study in 1978 of 65 elder executives plus 120 multi- country campaigns had highlighted the significant distinction amongst buying proposals and the creative presentations. It was found that using managerial pinions that the buying of proposals were exchangeable without the considerable change over 50 % of the time, although creative expressions were standardized for less than 30 % of the time exterior to their home markets.
Major obstacles to the advertising message standardization have also been discussed (Hill & James, 1989). Prototype standardization and pattern concepts have also been introduced; this has led to the differentiation of the degrees of the head office desire for standardizing the advertising efforts. The standardization pattern was mainly designed to allow the extensive adaptation for the country level. The head offices then recommended Main platforms although the final decisions had to be left to the local managers (Hill & James, 1989).
Cue et al. , (2012) have stated Standardized global advertising has increased to become greatly popular and been given the great growth in trade, the conjunction of the consumption values and the spread of the international media. A dependable product image is obtained with a constant message caused by the standardized advertising; it also helps improve and capitalized the scale of economy by using the same advertising adaptation message across the markets.
Moreover, in countries such as China or Japan, which are considered the opposite of the West in many different ways and cultural dimensions also, adapt the western advertising due to the western advertisers which also tend to use the standardized appeals and strategies, which have originated from the West. This history cleared out how the developed countries have control on “developing countries” and it goes under the condition of 80% of the population of life on agricultural areas are widely uneducated (Tall, 1974). These developed countries try to create an effective message to convey the audience in developing.
These countries hen creating creative advertising, it requires a former plan, which requires some tasks. Advertising primary tasks lead to primary demands for the need of basic products are imperative for the betterment of humans life and the perfection of his surroundings. Caring about basic human needs will relate to creating a new effective way for advertising (Cut, Yang, Wang & Lie, 2012). Throughout the past 10 years, The advertising activities increase rapidly in Southeast Asia, by suggesting a huge scale of advertising activities and having it implied in great power (Frazer, 1989).
Therefore, china the best example showing that advertising is growing more than 1000 percent, Indonesia 600 percent, Malaysia and Thailand for 300 percent, and as for India more than 200 percent dames, 2000). Also, the advertising expenditures in Indonesia in 1987 were around $107 million, adding Malaysia’s expenditures being around $177 million and Thailand being $244 million all as stated by International Advertising Association also known as the (I. A. A. ). In these developing countries the amount spent on advertising were 1%, 6% and 5% respectively.
Therefore the total advertising expenditures in the whole of Southeast Asia is $1 . 49 billion including Singapore, Philippines and Hong Kong, when on the other hand for the sake of comparing, the advertising expenditures in the U. S. Is $94. 75 billion (Frazer, 1989). It’s clear to say that the advertising is in a good relation with the globalization process, that advertising play the major role in globalization process. From the globalization perspective, comes to be the argument for the expanded worldwide markets which are mostly economic.
Moreover, not all the shocking numbers of the potential consumers in the foreign countries are attracting marketers from Western Europe and the U. S. Certain domestic issues related to the U. S. Which include heavy competition for the market share mainly amongst package goods which are advertised heavily, the growth of a slow economy, consumer brand loyalty which tends to be decreasing and increasing selling costs are all aspects which help in the interest of the international expansion (Frazer, 1989).
James (2002) reported for two reasons: The first reason is the invention of a new technology every day, this technology develops and changes rapidly and the most technologies which affect the third world countries are cables and satellites, that after these inventions the availability of more channels per receiver are increasing and the best examples for this is China and India that in 1990 China had 11 million cable television subscribers and India had 7 million, but after 5 years, China had 35 million and India had 16 million.
The second reason was the increase in the numbers of commercial programming in the developing countries. In developing countries, Advertising is for some people the only way of information about any new technology and products, and the flow of information process in these countries is a one side process making the information to flow only from developed Mounties to developing countries.
So, the audiences in the developing countries are just receiving information from the western countries. Turner (1974) said the elite people and businessmen in these countries are accepting technologies which have been developed by multinational companies, and they only try to make it suitable for local needs, not tiring innovations because they will face consequences and challenges from the multinational corporations.
This process of information is very dangerous in the third world countries on poor people who struggle to improve their lives more than the richest people in those Mounties and those who have high income, they can gain information from different sources like; reports and the internet. As for the poorest people in the third world countries, advertising seems to be the main source of information for them, and for many of them advertising is an event or even good news (Turner, 1974).
Advertising has been able to transform the consumer’s behavior with its power from being traditional to the mass-market mentality (Frazer, 1989). So, the poorest people in the developing countries, and result for globalization and the advertising in their Mounties, have caused the change in their consumption behavior that they ought to save money and decrease spending money on food to purchase the new products and the modern technology dames, 2002).
It is not the only reason for change in their consumption behavior, but it is also the advertisers in developed countries to become more effecting on those people in the developing countries, they use the style of advertising as a teacher when creating the message. Although, they teach people a new lifestyle from their own, and they discuss for them how to use the new products and help them to understand the new technologies, it also gives them the chance to try it before purchasing or by giving them some samples (Turner, 1974).
These changes in consumption behavior for people in the third world countries, firstly, lead to increase the exposure to mass media and expenditures that makes in Brazil, the poorest people to be the most people that watch television and listen to radio. Secondly, shifting the people from local purchasing behavior like corner stores and markets towards large supermarkets and shopping malls. All these factors help the developed countries to control the minds of the people in the third world countries. Moreover, the multinational corporations tried to redraw political boundaries for the third world countries (Turner, 1974).
Turner (1974) reported that these corporations are looking for minerals or tropical products in the developing countries which makes them focusing on take them to produce new products and sell them again in the developing countries’ markets with higher prices. Also, he found the main problem is that most of the multinational corporations not producing the products for the third world countries to satisfy their need and wants, but these corporations regard the developing countries as being a DOD market for achieving more profits.
Also, the expansion of the worldwide markets is mostly for economic reasons. The heavy competition between the multinational corporations for the market share mainly amongst packaged goods which are advertised heavily, the growth of a slow economy, consumer brand loyalty which tends to be decreasing and increasing selling costs are all aspects which help in the interest of the international expansion (Frazer, 1989). The results of these influences on some countries made them become more dependent on single crops, after these countries had depended on agriculture economies.
There are great obstacles that always face any advertising campaign, which may lead to the failing of such advertisement. For starters, Illiteracy; as if any target audiences of any advertising campaign can read or write, they can consume the advertising idea, it’s a primary barrier for the advertising as a whole, according to the researcher there are over 800 million adult illiterates worldwide today (Cut, Yang, Wang & Lie, 2012).
The second barrier facing the advertising is the “Birth Control” population that is widely increasing with a huge scale rate, with 60% within the upcoming 60-70 ears; because conditions are improving without controlling the birth problem, people are in growth and less educated areas seem to be increasing where they can least afford it. Another look at advertising; investing in advertising will help in persuading the consumers, and it is necessary, as it allows the consumers to purchase the product by influencing their feelings, social mean, apparent behavior manage.
Company’s massive investment in advertising such as; “Coca-Cola spent USED 2. 9 billion on worldwide advertising (The Coca-Cola Company 2011 : 63) while global advertising spending increased by 10. % to USED 503 billion (The Nielsen Company 2011)” (Cut, yang, Wang & Ill, 2012). The advertising did not stop at investment only, but it begun to globally emerge, as in the late asses and early asses, the global advertising industry took place through mergers and taking over the world, opening a huge agency such as “WAP-Income group and Euro RISC” worldwide, which provided broad services to the clients.
The impressive factor and impact of this globalization were practical on the companies in phrase of the size, reach and character (Leaf & Farley, 1981). Gain (2012) reported in today’s organized world, the globalization is a powerful force or advertising, as advertising plays an important fact in consumer’s life. There’s factors that may affect the global advertising, as the global advertising state with its changing trends and macro-micro environmental need to be well thought-out before and while creating a global advertisement; internal and external factors.
The external factors are macro-environmental situations that are faced by every advertiser but micro-environmental factors are unique to the advertiser Cain & Roy, 2 012). In order to have successful global advertising this requires having an appropriate environment in the business, so the advertiser has to define these two factors and study them very well.
The economy state is one of the factors that goes under the Macro factors lane, as it’s a central role in developing advertisements, the major differences in the national market and the global market affect the purchasing power which lead to affecting the advertisement’s success, high economy state results in producing high quality advertisement and results also in whether it was successful or not depending on the consumer behavior towards the advertisement itself Cain & ROY, 2012).
Moreover, under the Macro factors, is the “Media”, the local media is a main side which the global media and any market must have, which affects the media access, and the consumption of the idea to the consumer. Caterer et al. , (2008) found this leads companies to make specific strategy to infestation the global market, and even for particular markets, such as; “Colgate which uses 85 advertisement vans to reach rural markets. Media is a very hard factor to deal with, as the media selection relay on demographic and cryptographic profile of a target audience, objective of the advertisement, reach, regency and impact.
The reach needs to be high when the product awareness is created in the market Cain & Roy, 2012). The globe is not all the same, every country has its own folk traditions and values, people are not the same, so does in advertising and especially in global advertising, differences in culture, values and habits, perception and reaction towards the creative loom in advertising in different countries, which consider one of the macro factors that face global advertising as mentioned as an example “Consumption of snacks such as crisps is different in the
I-J as compared to in France. In the I-J, crisps form part of a main meal, whereas in France they are always a snack” which is important for the advertiser to understand the country folk before doing any kind of advertising in any country (Caterer, et al. , 2008). The effect of global advertising appears at different levels of culture whether it’s national, industrial, company or even individual culture.
Cultural diversity is the quality of diverse cultures or different cultures. It can also refer to the existence of respecting differences in other cultural customs as well as cultural differences bread among people, such as language, dress and traditions, and there are also important differences in the way communities organize themselves, in the common view of morality, and ways in which to interact with their environment (Mishear & Nave, 2012).
Gain and Roy (2012) report Although country values vary from country to country, some country can be persuaded by using the humor approach, while another can be persuaded by using another different approach, it all depends on the habits of the consumer himself which matters, and also it is the image of the country culture from the very beginning. Although casting of the advertisement, the articulation of words, emotions, gestures, body language, facial expressions and how the models dress is one of the factors that are affected by the social culture.
Moving on to the Micro factors that global advertising may face along first is the “visuals” as it is developed for global brands, it developed into visual strategies that are divided into two groups based on the cultural context: low-context Western cultures and high- context Eastern cultures (Hall, 1973). Gain and Roy (2012) found that the Television has come to dominate media on every art of the world by the US. The television still attracts people and still is a credible media.
There are countries that have high censorship on their media that don’t allow US to have the ability to make all countries watch the same event and may affect on their culture through media, as an example: The wedding of princess Diana, people all over the world were watching and hoped to have wedding like that even if it’s contrary to their own traditions. This is defined that in high context they combine the products with visual symbols “(“association” and “association with the character or celebrity)”.
In the high-context Eastern cultures advertisements depend on lifestyles, image of the product and symbols and imagery that transmit more to the emotional mind of the consumer rather than the rational mind. On the other hand, low-context Western cultures consumer like advertising to be direct to the point in which they understand the idea, and then depend on whether they will relate to the advertisement or won’t take any action.
This direct advertisement should consider information concerning the product, price and quality through visuals in the advertisement, which lead on to that the photographer and hooting of the ad is very important and a primary source to present the product in the ad perfectly (Callow & Coffman, 2002). Moreover, another way that supports the global advertising is the usage of western models, and English brand names as it enhances the perception of globalization of any brand, it’s a way to make it easy for the consumer to understand that the product is originated and made in a developed country.
Any product with a global image or the product’s place of origin shows the product’s reputation due to the country that produced it, technological advancement and workmanship. This helps the global advertising to reach success and to increase the advertisement’s effectiveness even in the developing countries (Adding, Trappers & Yap, 1984). Although producing great global advertising requires a huge budget, studies show that it was found that between the years 2002-2005 advertisers spent 30% of their total ad budget in foreign countries.
For example such as; “Levies spent a lot of money and time in continental European markets to make them understand its slogan “Levies engineered Jeans” because the consumers did not understand that “engineered” meant “made by’ (Adding, Trappers & Yap, 1984). The Americanization of the world today seems, as it has become a reality in many parts of the world, it is actually very surprising to realize how deep and wide cultures, religions and languages, and a large part of the world seems to have been stacked with American language, ideas and popular culture (Alan, 1990).
International advertising is mostly under the authority of U. S. Firms that use the same agency in different countries, which leads to making the Americans the most dominant, and the average of the advertising they control, over 50 percent accounted by the Americans and it had been placed in common market countries. The highest f the European agencies were strong enough to offer competition to the Americans firms, and they found that they have to expand their international activities to follow.